بررسی اختلال اضطراب فراگیر معلمان در شرایط همه‌گیری کووید-19

نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار، سازمان پژوهش و برنامه ریزی آموزشی، تهران، ایران

10.22055/edus.2020.34149.3073

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر، شناسایی تأثیر همه‌گیری کووید-19 برابتلای معلمان به اختلال اضطراب فراگیر است که بااستفاده ازروش توصیفی ازنوع همبستگی انجام شد.جامعه پژوهش شامل کلیه معلمان مقاطع تحصیلی ابتدایی و متوسطه کشوربود که 407 نفرازآنهابااستفاده ازروش نمونه‌گیری گلوله برفی مجازی به‌عنوان نمونه پژوهش انتخاب شدند.شرکت‌کنندگان دراین پژوهش به پرسشنامه‌ ویژگی‌های جمعیت‌شناختی ومنتخب ومقیاس اختلال اضطراب فراگیربه صورت برخط پاسخ دادند. به‌منظوراجرای پژوهش،نشانی اینترنتی پرسشنامه ومقیاس برای نمونه‌های اولیه ارسال شدوآن‌ها نیزبرای معلمان دیگرارسال کردندواین زنجیره تاآخرین نمونه ادامه یافت.تحلیل داده-های پژوهش ازطریق تحلیل تک متغیره(آزمونهای ناپارامتری) وتحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه بااستفاده از نرم‌افزار SPSS نسخه 22 انجام شد.یافته‌های پژوهش نشان دادهمه‌گیری کووید-19 با تغییراتی که دروضعیت سلامتی وشرایط اجتماعی وفریندتعلیم و تربیت ایجادمی‌کند، تجربه اضطراب فراگیررادرمیان معلمان افزایش می‌دهد،به‌طوری که 6/9 درصداز معلمان اضطراب فراگیررا درشرایط شیوع بیماری تجربه کردند.با این حال،آشنایی باتهیه محتوای الکترونیکی و آگاهی به آینده برنامه درسی ازعوامل محافظ معلمان دربرابر اضطراب ناشی از شیوع بیماری بودند.علاوه بر این، ابتلای خانواده به کووید-19 وپیگیری اخبار منفی به‌عنوان عوامل خطر برای افزایش تجربه اضطراب محسوب می‌شدند.دیگرعوامل اضطرابزای مرتبط با کووید-19 نظیر سن به‌طور مثبت بااضطراب رابطه داشت ودوره تدریس، بیماری‌های زمینه‌ای معلمان و خانواده‌هایشان، آشنایی باشاد، آشنایی باروش تدریس در فضای مجازی و استفاده ازحمایت‌های اجتماعی و روان‌شناختی به طورمنفی باتجربه علائم اضطراب معلمان درطی این بیماری همه‌گیر مرتبط بودند.این نتایج، اهمیت توجه به وضعیت سلامت روانی معلمان و تدبیر و کاربست راهکارهایی برای تقلیل عوامل اضطراب‌زا را در طی شیوع بیماری‌های همه‌گیر توسط نظام آموزش وپرورش مورد تأکید قرار می دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of teachers’ generalized anxiety disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic

نویسنده [English]

  • سارا ebrahimi
Assistant Professor, Faculty Member of Organization for Educational Research and Planning, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
COVID-19 as a new coronavirus emerged in Wuhan, in December 2019. The disease has become a global health emergency with high speed and transmission. It risks public health and imposes high pressures on the government and providers of medical services and also, it may lead to several forms of psychological distress, including anxiety, fear, depression, insomnia, post-traumatic stress disorder. It is important to maintain public mental health, especially teachers, as they interact with their students and affect their education. This study aimed to investigates teachers’ generalized anxiety disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methodology
The population of the study was all teachers of elementary, middle and secondary school in Iran which 407 teachers were selected with use of virtual snowball sampling. An online survey was conducted that consisted of two anonymous questionnaires: one was designed to collect participants’ personal information (sex, age, geographical position of residence, area of residence, teaching in elementary/ middle /secondary school, life with the family, family income stability, family infection to COVID-19, friend infection to COVID-19, underlying disease, family underlying disease, ease of internet access, acquaintance with: SHAD, teaching method in cyberspace, the preparation of electronic content, follow up the negative news, awareness of the curriculum future & using social and mental support); the other was the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale(GAD-7), which assess participants’ generalized anxiety referring to the pandemic. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 22.0 and univariate analysis (Nonparametric) to test whether differences in demographic characteristics effected on experiencing GAD; and multiple linear regression analysis (enter) was conducted to identify the impact factors for GAD.
Results
GAD prevalence among the teachers 3 month after the COVID-19 pandemic was 9.6%. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that teaching in elementary/middle/secondary school (p < 0.00, β=-0.14), family infection to COVID-19 (p < 0.02, β=-0.12), acquaintance with the preparation of electronic content (p < 0.01, β=-0.12), follow up the negative news (p < 0.00, β=0.17) & awareness of the curriculum future (p < 0.00, β=-0.23) could be regarded as predictor factors for GAD among teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Discussion
The results indicate that some teachers showed GAD during the COVID-19 pandemic and underscore the importance of attention to the mental health condition of teachers and measures to reduce anxiety factors during the pandemic by the education system. In order to better understand pandemic effects on mental health of teachers, in the field of coping strategies & education system approach to reduce negative educational & psychological effects is needed further research.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • generalized anxiety disorder
  • Teachers
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