نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مطالعات برنامه درسی، دانشکده علوم انسانی و اجتماعی، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم انسانی و اجتماعی، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم انسانی و اجتماعی، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران.

10.22055/edus.2024.43943.3466

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی تأثیر تدریس به شیوه سازنده‌گرایی بر علاقه به درس، سرزندگی تحصیلی و اشتیاق به مدرسه انجام گرفت. طرح پژوهش کمی و روش پژوهش از نوع نیمه آزمایشی با طرح پیش‌آزمون - پس‌آزمون با گروه کنترل بوده است. جامعه‌ی آماری پژوهش شامل دانش‌آموزان پسر دوره ابتدایی شهرستان جویبار در سال تحصیلی 1401-1400 و نمونه آماری دانش‌آموزان پایه‌ی ششم ابتدایی دبستان مرحوم نوایی شهرستان جویبار با جمعیت 25 نفر تعیین شده است. روش نمونه‌گیری بر اسـاس شـیوه انتخابی یا جایگزین، که یـک گروه 12 نفره از دانش‌آموزان به عنوان گروه آزمایش و گروه 13 نفره دیگر از همان دانش‌آموزان به عنوان گروه گواه انتخاب شدند. در این پژوهش از کتاب مطالعات اجتماعی پایه‌ی ششم دبستان در سال تحصیلی 1401-1400 استفاده شده و مداخله در 10 جلسه یک ساعته انجام گرفته است. مداخله در این پژوهش بدین صورت بود که به گروه آزمایش با روش تدریس سازنده‌گرایی طی ده جلسه و گروه گواه نیز با روش‌های معمول تدریس نظیر سخنرانی آموزش ارائه شد. ابزار پژوهش سه پرسشنامه استاندارد علاقه به درس Keller and Sobia (1993)، سرزندگی تحصیلی Dehghanizadeh and Hossienchari (2011) و اشتیاق به مدرسه Wang (2011) بوده است. داده‌های کمی استخراج شده از پرسشنامه‌ها در دو بخش آمار توصیفی و استنباطی با کمک نرم‌افزار SPSS20 تحلیل شده است. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان داد تدریس به شیوه سازنده‌گرایی بر علاقه به درس (36/19=F) تأثیر معناداری گذاشته است. همچنین تدریس به شیوه سازنده‌گرایی بر سرزندگی تحصیلی (14/6=F) و اشتیاق به مدرسه )94/23=F) نیز به طور معناداری اثرگذار بوده است. در تبیین یافته‌های پژوهش باید اذعان داشت نقش محیط و روش تدریس سازنده‌گرا در ایجاد و تقویت علاقه به درس، سرزندگی تحصیلی و اشتیاق به مدرسه قابل توجّه است. آنچه که در روش تدریس سازنده‌گرا زیاد به چشم می‌آید، تعامل و ارتباط بین معلّم و دانش‌آموز و سایر همسالان است. روابط دانش‌آموزان و معلّمان بر احساس علاقه آنان به درس، سرزندگی تحصیلی و اشتیاق به مدرسه اثر مستقیم داشته و باعث افزایش انگیزش آنان می‌شود. بنابراین، به معلّمان توصیه می‌شود از طریق استفاده از تکنیک‌های گوش دادن فعّال، روش‌های فعّال یاددهی-یادگیری نظیر روش سازنده‌گرایی به این امر بپردازند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Constructivist Teaching on Interest in Lessons, Academic Vitality and Enthusiasm for School

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mostafa Safari 1
  • meimanat abedini baltork 2
  • Hojjat Saffar Heidari 3

1 MA in curriculum studies, Department of Education, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Education, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran

3 Associate Professor of Philosophy of Education, Department of Education, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Introduction
The present study was conducted with the aim of investigating The effect of constructivist teaching on interest in lessons, academic vitality and enthusiasm for school. Quantitative research design and research method was a quasi-experimental type with a pre-test and post-test design with a control group. The statistical population of the research includes male elementary school students of Juybar city in the academic year of 2021-2022. 25 people were selected as sample from 6th grade students of the Navaei school.
 
Method
Sampling method based on selective or alternative method, in which a group of 12 students was selected as an experimental group and another group of 13 students was selected as a control group. In this study, the social studies course book of the sixth grade of primary school in the academic year of 2021-2022 was used, which was taught in 10 one-hour sessions.The intervention in this research was that the experimental group was taught with the constructivist teaching method during ten sessions and the control group was taught with the usual teaching methods such as lectures.The study instrument was three standard questionnaires including interest in lesson belongs to Keller & Sobia (1993), academic engagement for Dehghanizadeh and Hossienchari (2011) and school engagement for Wang (2011). Quantitative data extracted from questionnaires in two sections, descriptive and inferential statistics with SPSS20 software.
 
Results
The findings of the research showed that teaching in a constructivist way had a significant effect on interest in the lesson (F=19.36). Also, based on the results of the research, teaching in a constructivist way has a significant effect on academic engagement (F=6.14) and school engagement. (F=23.94).
 
Discussion
In explaining the findings of the research, it should be acknowledged that the role of the environment and the constructivist teaching method in creating and strengthening interest in lesson, academic engagement and school engagement is significant. What’s that seen a lot in the constructivist teaching method is the interaction and communication between teacher and students. The relationship between students and teachers has a direct effect on their interest in lesson, academic engagement and school engagement and increases their motivation. Therefore, teachers are recommended to address this through the use of active listening techniques, active teaching and learning methods such as constructivism.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • : Constructivism
  • Interest in the course
  • Academic buoyancy
  • School enthusiasm
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