نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری تخصصی روان‌شناسی تربیتی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران.

2 استاد، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

3 دانشیار، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

4 دانشیار، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران.

10.22055/edus.2022.39996.3333

چکیده

بدون تردید می‌توان گفت که اجتماعی‌سازی یادگیری یکی از عوامل مؤثر بر بهبود کیفیت زندگی تحصیلی و اجتماعی یادگیرندگان است. با توجه به چند بعُدی و فرایندی بودن اجتماعی‌سازی یادگیری و کمبود پژوهش‌های تبیینی در مورد این مسئله، پژوهش حاضر درصدد کشف و تبیین فرایند اجتماعی‌سازی یادگیری در محیط‌های یادگیری به کمک روش « نظریه داده بنیاد» بود. مشارکت‌کنندگان این پژوهش را معلمان علوم و صاحب‌نظران دانشگاهی دارای تجربه در زمینه اجتماعی‌سازی یادگیری تشکیل می‌دادند و با 13 نفر از آن‌ها که به شیوه هدفمند و با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری نظری انتخاب شدند مصاحبه انجام شد. ماحصل مرحله‌ی کدگذاری باز، بیست و یک طبقه‌ی اصلی بود. شرایط علّی عبارت بودند از: مشارکت فعال دانش‌آموز، طراحی محیط یادگیری دانش‌آموز محور، بسترسازی برای آموزش دانش‌آموز محور، پیوستگی آموزش و تجربه و یادگیری تعاملی. شرایط زمینه‌ای شامل دو طبقه‌ی اصلی توسعه حرفه‌ای معلّمان، رفع موانع ساختاری، اداری و فضای فیزیکی بود. نظام آموزشی مکانیکی و کمیت‌گرا، کیفیت معلّم، کیفت یادگیرندگان و کیفیت خانواده شرایط مداخله‌گر را تشکیل می‌دادند. همچنین، راهبردهای پژوهش در پنج طبقه‌ی تعامل اجتماعی در یادگیری، تأکید بر پرسش و پژوهش، هنر برانگیختن، خودراهبر کردن یادگیرندگان و تناسب میان محتوا، مکان و زمان آموزش جای گرفتند. پنج طبقه‌ی اصلی اثرات مثبت بر یادگیری و دانش، افزایش انگیزه و اعتماد به نفس در محیط یادگیری، تقویت توانایی‌ها و مهارت‌های سطح بالا، بهبود کیفیت زندگی اجتماعی و تغییر در نگرش یادگیرندگان نیز تشکیل‌دهنده پیامدها بودند. سازنده‌گرایی اجتماعی الگوی اجتماعی‌سازی یادگیری به عنوان پدیده مرکزی داده‌ها، شکل‌دهنده‌ی یافته‌های پژوهش حاضر بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Explaining the Process of Socialization of Learning in the Experimental Sciences: A Qualitative Research

نویسندگان [English]

  • Yaser Gravand 1
  • morteza omidian 2
  • Hamid Farhadi Rad 3
  • Seyed Abbas Razavi 4

1 Ph.D.of Educational Psychology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

2 Professor, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

4 Associate Professor, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction
Deep and meaningful learning of learners in educational environments is influenced by various factors, each of which can somehow affect the improvement of learners' learning. In this regard, considering the principles and views of constructivist theories, especially social constructivism, which has attracted the most attention among constructivist theories, it is necessary to have a social to the learning process and learning environments and organized learning environments in a way that allows learners to actively interact and participate. On the other hand, many factors have led to the socialization of learning in our schools, especially in theoretical subjects such as the experimental sciences. In this regard, the purpose of this study was to design a model of social constructivist learning environment in the experimental sciences.
 
Method
Qualitative research approach with use of grounded ‌ theory research method is utilised. The target group consisted of all prominent professors who have mastered the constructivist approach and teachers of experimental sciences selected from the best teaching models in the academic year 1397-98 in the country, who were selected using theoretical purposive sampling. Using semi-structured interviews, 13 interviews were conducted with professors and teachers in the field of social constructivism and theoretical saturation was obtained.
Results
Data were analyzed by "coding" and "categorization" in three levels of open, axial and selective coding. Also, to determine the validity of the data, the "Triangulation". Overall, the findings confirmed the six dimensions of the grounded theory. The results showed that the "central phenomenon" of the research is "social constructivism as a model of socialization of learning". Also, the most important "causal conditions" included: active student participation, designing a student-centered learning environment, laying the groundwork for student-centered learning, continuity of teaching and experience, and interactive learning. in addition, "contextual conditions " include: Teacher professional development, removal of structural, administrative and physical barriers, and "intervening conditions" including mechanical and quantitative education systems, teacher quality, Learners quality and family quality. "Strategies" also included: social interaction in learning, emphasis on question and research, the art of motivating, Self-directing learners in learning, and the fit between content, place, and time of instruction. Finally, "outcomes" showed positive effects on learning and knowledge, increasing motivation and confidence in the learning environment, strengthening high-level abilities and skills, improving the quality of social life and changing learners' attitudes.
 
Discussion
In general, the model of education based on social constructivism is a systematic, indigenous and practical way to identify important elements in the socialization of learners' learning that should be considered by teachers, school principals and educational policy makers in general, because in this case we can consider Causal factors affecting the socialization of learning with regard to contextual and interventionist conditions by applying appropriate strategies paved the way for the formation of desirable educational outcomes for learners.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Social Constructivism
  • Experimental Science instruction
  • learning
  • Methodology Grounded Theory
  • Qualitative Research
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