ارائه الگوی راهبردها و چالش‌های آموزش کارآفرینی در دوره اول متوسطه در ایران با رویکرد فراترکیب

نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری برنامه درسی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان شناسی، دانشگاه اصفهان

2 گروه برنامه ریزی درسی، گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه اصفهان

3 استاد گروه روانشناسی کودکان با نیازهای خاص، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان شناسی، دانشگاه اصفهان

10.22055/edus.2021.34515.3088

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف ترکیب ادبیات گسترده در مورد آموزش کارآفرینی در دوره اول متوسطه صورت گرفته است تا چارچوبی یکپارچه جهت الگوی راهبردها و چالش‌های آموزش کارآفرینی ارائه نماید. این پژوهش از نظر هدف کاربردی است و با روش کیفی فراترکیب انجام شده است و جامعه آماری کلیه مطالعات انجام شده در بازه زمانی (2003-2020) و انجام مصاحبه نیمه‌ساختار‌یافته با افراد متخصص و صاحب‌نظر در زمینه آموزش کارآفرینی در ایران می‌باشد. از این رو، 1500 پژوهش در زمینه موضوع مورد نظر ارزیابی و در نهایت 122 مقاله به صورت هدفمند انتخاب گردید و در گام دوم با 22 نفر از افراد تا رسیدن به اشباع نظری مصاحبه انجام شد. با تحلیل محتوا و ترکیب ادبیات مربوطه و پیاده‌سازی مصاحبه‌های انجام شده، با روش کدگذاری باز، محوری، و انتخابی، در مجموع 700 کد مفهوم، 128 مقوله محوری و 9 مقوله کلیدی طی فرآیند جستجو و ترکیب نظام‌مند انتخاب و مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج تحلیل نشان داد مهم‌ترین مقوله‌های کلیدی شناسایی شده در بخش چالش‌ها شامل، عدم پیش‌نیازهای لازم آموزش کارآفرینی، چالش ساختاری سیستم آموزشی، چالش اجرای آموزش کارآفرینی، چالش خروجی و ارزیابی نهایی و مقوله‌های کلیدی در بخش راهبردهای آن شامل، بسترسازی آموزش با رویکرد کارآفرینی، طراحی و تدوین برنامه آموزشی با رویکرد کارافرینی، تلفیق و ادغام راهبردهای ملی و بین‌المللی آموزش با رویکرد کارآفرینی، تغییر رویکرد مدارس عادی به مدارس با رویکرد آموزش کارآفرینی، همگام-سازی و برون سازی فعالیت‌های کارآفرینانه بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Designing strategies and challenges of entrepreneurship education Model in Lower secondary schools in Iran with a hybrid approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • leila heshmatifar 1
  • mohamadjavad liaghatdar 2
  • Ahmad Abedi 3
1 PhD of Curriculum, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Isfahan
2 Department of Curriculum Planning, Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Isfahan
3 Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Isfahan
چکیده [English]

Designing strategies and challenges of entrepreneurship education Model in the junior high school in Iran with a synthesis
Abstract
Introduction: The present study aims to combine the extensive literature on entrepreneurship education in junior high school to provide an integrated framework for presenting strategies and challenges of entrepreneurship education.
Methods:This research is applied in terms of purpose and has been done with a synthesis qualitative method. The statistical population of all studies conducted in the period (2003-2020) and conducting semi-structured interviews with experts in the field of entrepreneurship education in Is Iran. Therefore, 1500 researches in the field of the subject were evaluated and finally 122 articles were purposefully selected and in the second step, 22 people were interviewed until the theoretical saturation was reached. By analyzing the content and composition of the relevant literature and implementing the interviews conducted, by open, pivotal, and selective coding methods, a total of 700 concept codes, 128 categories, and 9 key categories were selected during the search and systematic process.
Result:The results of the analysis showed that the most important key categories identified in the challenges section include, lack of necessary prerequisites for entrepreneurship training, structural challenge of the education system, challenge of implementing entrepreneurship training, output challenge and final evaluation and key categories in the section. Its strategies include the way for education with an entrepreneurial approach, designing and developing an educational program with an entrepreneurial approach, integrating national and international education strategies with an entrepreneurial approach, changing the approach of regular schools to schools with an entrepreneurial education approach, synchronizing and externalizing activities has been entrepreneurial.
Conclution: Finally, using the obtained information, a model was presented to explain and compile a comprehensive model of entrepreneurship education for the junior high school. Finally, a model of challenges and strategies for entrepreneurial education was presented.
Keywords: Challenge, Strategy, Entrepreneurship Education, Junior high school.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Challenge
  • Strategy
  • Entrepreneurship Education
  • Junior high school
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