بازاندیشی درباره یادگیری/ آموزش: درانداختن تغییرات ژرف و دگرگون‌ساز از رهگذر "اندیشه‌ورزی نقادانه"

نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مطالعات مدیریت آموزش عالی، موسسه پژوهش و برنامه‌ریزی آموزش عالی، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه مطالعات مدیریت آموزش عالی، موسسه پژوهش و برنامه‌ریزی آموزش عالی، تهران، ایران.

10.22055/edus.2022.40094.3338

چکیده

هدف این پژوهش که در بازه زمانی 1399-1400 انجام شده است، پیشنهاد چارچوبی برای اندیشه‌ورزی نقادانه بوده است که با روش شناسی کیفی انجام شد. برپایه تحلیل درونمایه ادبیات نظری و دستاوردهای زمینه‌ای برآمده از مصاحبه‌های نیمه ساختاریافته با 26 نفر از اندیشه پرداران دانشگاهی، که به روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند انتخاب شده بودند و نیز با استفاده از روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی، اصلی‌ترین ویژگی‌های شناختی و گرایش درونی اندیشه‌ورزی نقادانه شناسایی شد. همچنین چارچوب مفهومی اندیشه‌ورزی نقاد، بسان گذرگاهی برای یادگیری پایدار که در برگیرنده شش نشانگر- بازشناسی مسئله؛ بازکاوی و تفسیر درست پدیده‌ها؛ استدلال‌ورزی؛ روشن‌سازی ابعاد گوناگون مسئله (تبیین)؛ داوری درباره روایی داده‌ها؛ بازاندیشی نقادانه- بسان ویژگی‌های شناختی و فراشناختی و نُه نشانگر- گرایش فزاینده به مسئله؛ کنجکاوی؛ گشودگی ذهنی؛ فروتنی؛ اندیشیدن بی باکانه؛ دوری جستن از هرگونه نقد جانبدارانه؛ استقلال اندیشگی؛ انتقادپذیری؛ اخلاق مداری- بسان ویژگی‌های گرایشی و انگیزشی اندیشه‌ نقادانه، به تصویر کشیده شد. چارچوب پیشنهادی شاید بتواند راه را برای نقادانه‌اندیشی و نواندیشی درباره یادگیری آینده در سپهر اندیشه‌ورزی "پایداری" بگشاید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Rethinking Education/ Learning: To bring profound and transformative changes through "critical thinking"

نویسندگان [English]

  • motahhareh hamzerobati 1
  • hamid javdani 2
1 Higher Education Management Studies Department,, Institute for Research and Planning in Higher Education, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Higher Education Management Studies Department, Institute for Research and Planning in Higher Education, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Critical thinking is one of the main acctual goals of teaching / learning, because critical thinking can help learners to resolve ambiguities or adapt to ongoing social, cultural, and technological changes.
Method
The purpose of this study which has done in 2020-2021, was to provide a framework for critical thinking, which was carried out with qualitative research method. Based on the theoretical and experimental findings obtained from semi-structured interviews with 26 academic researchers, selected through purposive sampling and also using qualitative content analysis method, the main cognitive competences and dispositions of critical thinking were identified.
Results
The depicted conceptual framework of critical thinking includes two main components (Cognitive and metacognitive competences and Dispositions of critical thinking). The proposed framework could pave the way for Critical thinking in future learning under the "Sustainability" paradigm.
Discussion
Critical thinking is vital for the future of the student and could able them constantly to applic it on their thinking when making a decision and also could indirectly strengthen deeply comprehension of a concept . It could be also able them to evaluate all the decisions that they have made in the past. In fact, students who think critically can be deemed responsible as they are used to thinking thoroughly, openly and imaginatively before making a decision. however, Excellence in thought, need to be systematically cultivated.
Discussion
Critical thinking is vital for the future of the student and could able them constantly to applic it on their thinking when making a decision and also could indirectly strengthen deeply comprehension of a concept . It could be also able them to evaluate all the decisions that they have made in the past. In fact, students who think critically can be deemed responsible as they are used to thinking thoroughly, openly and imaginatively before making a decision. however, Excellence in thought, need to be systematically cultivated.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Sustainability paradigm
  • Learning/ education
  • Critical thinking
  • Transformational change
  • Knowledge creation
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