ارائه مدل مفهومی آموزش مبتنی بر بازی با تاکید بر مهارت‌آموزی: مطالعه فراترکیب

نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری برنامه درسی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

10.22055/edus.2021.37030.3206

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی مولفه‌های آموزش مبتنی بر بازی با تاکید بر مهارت‌آموزی در دوره اول ابتدایی و ارائه مدل مفهومی انجام شده‌است. روش پژوهش، کیفی و متاسنتز است که به صورت فراترکیب و روش کتابخانه‌ای با استفاده از مدل هفت مرحله‌ای سندلوسی و باروس(2007) گردآوری شده‌است. در این مطالعه، پس از طراحی سوال پژوهشی، جستجوی سیستماتیک بر اساس کلمات کلیدی مربوط به بازی و تعاملات طی سال‌های (2010-2020) در پایگاه‌های اطلاعاتی ایرانی و خارجی شامل مورد بررسی قرار گرفت . پس از انجام 7 مرحله از روش متاسنتز و بازبینی، تعداد 30 مقاله از بین 9472 مقاله یافت شده، 8 بعد و 19 مولفه به عنوان عناصر آموزش مبتنی بر بازی با تاکید بر مهارت‌آموزی قابل استناد است. بر این اساس مولفه‌ها شامل: 1. انگیزش(توانایی دستیابی به اهداف برنامه درسی، لذت بردن از یادگیری با حس کنجکاوی)2. فردی(افزایش اعتمادبنفس، توجه به ارزش‌های اخلاقی وتربیتی) 3.مهارتی(توانایی برقراری ارتباط موثر و مهارت‌های اجتماعی، رشد مهارت-های زندگی)4.شناختی(رسیدن به رشد ذهنی، رشد مهارت‌های حل مساله)5. یادگیری(یادگیری عملی و تجربه‌ای) 6. خلاقیت(بستری برای آفرینش اندیشه‌های نو، آشنایی با تجربه‌های نو)7. جسمانی(تخلیه انرژی، رشد جسمی و مهارت‌های حرکتی) 8. درمانی(ابراز احساسات و رفع مشکلات رفتاری،کاهش اضطراب ) می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Conceptual Model of Game-Based learning with Emphasis on Skill Training: A meta-synthesis

نویسندگان [English]

  • shahrzad saffari 1
  • Rezvan Hakim zade 2
  • Marzieh Dehghani 3
  • Masoud Gholamali lavasani 2
1 Ph.D. Candidate Curriculum Studies, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Teaching and learning in primary school require attention to the physical, cognitive, emotional and social needs of students in this period. In this regard, play is one of the mechanisms that can turn the flow of education and learning in the elementary school, especially in the first period (first, second, third) into an exciting, uplifting, enjoyable and creative process. The present study seeks to extract the most important components and dimensions of game-based education with emphasis on skills training in order to provide a comprehensive model as its main goal. The question is, what are the dimensions and elements of game-based education with emphasis on skill training?

Method
The present study is a qualitative study performed using metasynthesis method. In the present study, the use of metasynthesis method to identify elements related to the game-based education model with emphasis on skill training is such that researchers with a comprehensive and holistic view of the sources have done a thorough and in-depth review and related research findings combined to create comprehensive and interpretive findings. In order to achieve the purpose of the study, previous studies were reviewed and explored, and in this regard, the seven-step method of Barroso and Sandelowski (2007) was used.

Results
The research was designed in the form of 8 dimensions and 19 components. The first dimension of a conceptual model is "motivation": the ability to achieve curriculum goals. The "individual" dimension includes: increasing self-confidence. The "skills": the ability to communicate effectively. The "cognitive": achieving mental development. The "learning" dimension includes: practical and experiential learning, the development of basic learning skills. "creativity": a platform for creating new ideas. The "physical": reduction of inactivity, physical growth and movment skills. The "therapy": expressing emotions.
.
Discussion
According to studies, cognitive processing of students is a very important issue; therefore, the results of the research in this dimension are consistent with the findings of Zeng et al. (2020) and Johann (2019). In terms of creativity and increasing creative thinking, it is consistent with the findings of Marcos et al. (2020) and in terms of physicality and energy depletion, which is accompanied by the development of movement skills, is also consistent with the findings of Chu, M. fowler (2020).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Game
  • educational game
  • skill training
  • Meta Synthesis
Adamiat, A., Warasteh, A., & Nizamdoost, A. (2018). The effectiveness of play therapy based on cognitive-behavioral assessment in reducing behavioral disorders in children with Down Syndrome. Quarterly Journal of Child Mental Health, 5(4). [persian]
Alhammad, M. M., & Moreno, A. M. (2018). Gamification in software engineering education: A systematic mapping. Journal of Systems and Software, 141, 131-150. DOI: 10.1016/j.jss.2018.03.065.
Arab, M., Ebrahimzadeh Pezeshki, R., & Morovati Sharif Abadi, A. (2014). Designing a model combining the factors affecting divorce with a systematic review of previous studies. Iranian Journal of Epidemiology, 4, 140-171. [persian].
Baharlu, F., & Hashemi, A. (2019). Practical solutions to increase self-confidence in children. Ormazd Research Journal, 47, 150-170. [persian]
Chu, M., & Fowler, T. (2020). Gamification of FormativeFeedback in Language Arts and Mathematics Classrooms. International Journal of Game-Based Learning, 10(1) January-March 2020.
Dastmard, M. Bakhshesh, M and Ebrahimi Shadpi, A (2019). Analytical study of the position of play in the education of children from the perspective of Western schools and Islam. Journal of Recent Advances in Psychology, Educational Sciences and Education.2 (19): 55-64. [persian].
Emami Rizi, K., Haqqani, F., & Yousefi, A. (2019). Investigating the effect of using educational games in geometry course on creativity and academic achievement of third grade elementary school female students. Research in Curriculum Planning, 16 (2): 64-74. [persian]
Ghaffari, K. Davoodi, H. Mohammadi, F.and Yasblaghi Sharahi, B. (2019). The effectiveness of educational games on the academic achievement of first grade students in Persian lessons. Journal of Educational Psychology Studies, 35, 211-242. [persian]
Ghorbanzadeh, M, Salehi, K & Moghaddam zadeh. (2020). Construction of a Standardized Questionnaire to Detect the Pseudo Evaluation in Elementary Schools. Journal of Educational Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. 27(2), 91-116. [persian]
Hassanovand, M., & Arjmandnia, A. (2019). The effect of cognitive games on the flexibility of children with math disorders. Journal of Cognitive Psychology and Psychiatry, Year 6 (2), 134-148. [persian]
Heydari, S., & Ghaffarinia, R. (2019). Comparison of the effect of two methods of teaching in a playful and traditional way on the learning of female elementary school students. Journal of Recent Advances in Psychology, Educational Sciences and Education, 2(20), 77-96. [persian]
Hosseini Sabet, S., Zeinali, Z., Sharifudini, Z., & Moghimian, Z. (2019). The relationship between play and learning and social development of elementary students. Journal of Science and Engineering Elite. 4(6), [persian]
Hosseini, A., Eshkevari, A., & Majidi, N. (2020). The effectiveness of game-based education on the learning rate and motivation of students in Arabic. Journal of Linguistic Research, 11(2), 363-388. [persian]
Jančič, P. Hus, V. (2018). Teaching Social Studies with Games. International Journal of Game-Based Learning. Volume 8 • Issue 2 • April-June 2018
Johann, E., & Karbach, J. (2019). Effects of game‐based and standard executive control training on cognitive and academic abilities in elementary school children. Developmental Science. doi.org/10.1111/ desc.12866.
Ke, F. (2015). Designing and integrating purposeful learning in game play: a systematic review. Education Tech Research Dev. DOI 10.1007/s11423-015-9418-1.
Keramati, M., & Mohammadi, A. (2019). Designing and developing an educational game model with emphasis on the development of interpersonal skills of preschool children. Quarterly Journal of a New Approach in Educational Sciences, 1(1), 2-9. [persian]
Mahmoudi, M. (2015). Investigating the effect of educational games on attitudes toward mathematics and learning some mathematical concepts in the sixth grade of elementary school in Golpayegan. Master Thesis of Allameh Tabatabai University. [persian]
Marcos, R., Ferandez, V., Gonzalez., M., & Silver, J. (2020). Promoting childrens creative thinking through reading and writing in a cooperative learning classroom. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 36(2020) 100663.
Masnavi, A., & Razavi, A. (2019).  The ability to predicting students' perceived feedback based on the constructivist learning environment. Journal of Educational Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. 26 (2), 155-176. [persian]
Mohammad Hassani, N., & Aghazadeh, R. (2019). The effect of digital, educational multimedia and face-to-face educational games on seventh grade English learning. Teaching and Learning Technology, 3(11), 99-112. [persian]
Mousavi, F., & Mohebbi, Sh. (2019). The effect of imaginative education games on academic motivation and academic achievement of female students in the fourth-grade elementary mathematics course in the third district of Kermanshah. Educational Research. Seventeenth Issue. [persian]
Noroozi, O., Dehghanzadeh, H., & Talaee, E. (2020). A systematic review on the impacts of game-based learning on argumentation skills. Entertainment Computing, 35 (2020) 100369.
Oliaee, M., & Akbari, A. (2017). Investigating the effect of serious educational games on critical thinking of sixth grade male students in Kashmar. International Conference on Management, Economics and Humanities, [persian]
Parker, R. & Thomsen, S. (2019). "Learning through play at school". Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by-nc-sa/3.09).
Pourrostaei Ardakani, S. Ismaili Gochar, S. (2019). The effect of multifunctional educational computer games on students' social skills and cognitive abilities. Journal of Educational Psychology, Fifteenth Year, (15), 211-230. [persian]
Rafiei, S. (2016). The effect of combining process and game-based teaching methods with mathematics lessons on learning. Master Thesis Al-Zahra University. [persian]
Rezaei, A., Manadi, M., & Akhavan Tafti, M. (2019). Comparison of traditional and modern elementary school games from the perspective of value learning. Bi-Quarterly Journal of Thought and Child, Institute of Humanities and Cultural Studies, 10(1), 73-99. [persian]
Sadati, M., & Ghomeishi, M. (2019). Recognition of Children's Visual Preferences to Promote Creativity Using Card Sorting Technique. Journal of Educational Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, 26(2), 197-216. [persian]
Sánchez-Martín, J., Cañada-Cañada, F., & Dávila-Acedo, M. A. (2017). Just a game? Gamifying a general science class at university Collaborative and competitive work implications. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 26, 51-59.
Sandelowski, M., & Barroso, J. (2007). Handbook for synthesizing qualitative research Springer Publishing Company. New York. [Google Scholar].
Shafiee Sarvestani, M., & Mesgarpour, M. (2017). A review of the use of non-digital educational games in elementary school classes. Third International Conference on Psychology, Sociology, Educational Sciences and Social Studies. [persian]
Shafiee Sarvestani, M., Jahani, J., & Khalif, H. (2019). The effect of educational darts on the level of learning the basic mathematical concepts of the first grade of elementary school. Curriculum Research, 9(1), 30-53. [persian]
Stutey, DM., Dunn, M., Shelnut, J., & Ryan, JB. (2017). Impact of adlerian play therapy on externalizing behaviors of at-risk preschoolers. International Journal of Play Therapy, 26(4), 196-206.
Tajuddin, M., & Nowruzi, D. (2012). The effect of educational games on learning traffic signs and regulations. Year 1(2). [persian]
Talan, T., Doğan, Y., & Batdı, V. (2020). Efficiency of digital and non-digital educational games: A comparative meta-analysis and a metathematic analysis. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2020.1743798
Teacher, Gh. (1398). Investigating the effect of play on the learning rate of elementary school math lessons. Ormazd Research Journal, No. 47 b. 85-90. [persian]
Ucus, S. (2014)." Elementary School Teachers’ Views on Game-based Learning as a Teaching Method". Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 186 (2015) 401 – 409
UNICEF. (2018). "Learning through play strengthening learning through play in early childhood education programmes". Education Section, Programme Division 3 United Nations Plaza.
Valizadeh, L. Rahimian, H. Abbaspour, A. Tasskooh, A & Ahghar, Gh. (2019). Identifying the competencies of nursery school administrators. Journal of Educational Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz.  26(2), 51-70). [persian]
Vandercruysse, S., Vanndewaetere, M., & Clarebout, G. (2012). Game-Based Learning: A Review on the Effectiveness of Educational Games. Handbook of Research on Serious Games as Educational, Business and Research Tools (pp.628-647) Chapter: 32Publisher: IGI Globa
Vankus, P. (2008).  "Games Based Lerning in Teaching ofMathematics at lower Secondary School, Acta DidacticaUniversitatis Comenianae Mathematics, Issue, 2008, p. 103-120.
Vasileva-Stojanovska, T., Vasileva, M., Malinovski, T., & Trajkovik, V. (2014). The Educational Prospects of Traditional Games as Learning Activities of Modern Students. In European Conference on Games Based Learning (Vol. 2, p. 749). Academic Conferences International Limited.
Weiten, W., Lioyd, M. A., & Dunn, D. (2015). Psychology applied to modernlife: adjustment in the 21st century. Cengage learning (11th edition).
Zeng, J., Parks, S., & Shang, J. (2020). To learn scientifically, effectively, and enjoyably: A Review of Educational Games, Wiley. 10.1002/ hbe2.188.