توصیف و تحلیل ویژگی‌های مدیران موفّق مدارس ابتدایی شهر مشهد: مطالعه موردی

نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت آموزشی، مؤسسه آموزش عالی حکمت رضوی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه مدیریت آموزشی و توسعه منابع انسانی دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد،مشهد

3 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت آموزشی، گروه مدیریت آموزشی و توسعه منابع انسانی دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد

10.22055/edus.2022.37085.3214

چکیده

هدف اصلی این پژوهش، توصیف و تحلیل ویژگی‌های فردی و حرفه‌ای مدیر، استراتژی‌های مدیریتی و چالش‌های پیش روی مدیران مدارس ابتدایی بر اساس تجارب بین‌المللی مدیران موفّق می‌باشد. از روش پژوهش مطالعه‌موردی با رویکرد کیفی استفاده شد. بنابراین، چهار نفر از مدیران موفّق مدارس ابتدایی شهر مشهد به عنوان نمونه مورد مطالعه انتخاب شدند. جهت گردآوری داده‌ها از روش مصاحبه نیمه ساخت‌یافته استفاده شد. تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از روش تحلیل تفسیری (کدگذاری باز و محوری) انجام شد. براساس نتایج حاصل از تحلیل داده‌ها، مهم‌ترین ویژگی‌های فردی و حرفه‌ای مدیران مورد مطالعه عبارتند از: ایفای نقش رهبری، روابط انسانی سازنده با کارکنان، تسلط مدیر بر امور مدرسه، خود توسعه‌ای مدیر و کسب موفّقیّت‌های اداری. همچنین، مدیران مورد مطالعه اغلب از استراتژی‌های برنامه‌ریزی و هدف‌گذاری، تقسیم‌کار، همکاری و مشارکت معلمان در امور مدرسه، ایجاد جوّ صمیمی و آرام در مدرسه، بهره‌گیری از ظرفیت‌های اولیا و همکاران در مدرسه، تشویق و تقدیر معلمان، نظارت و ارزیابی کار معلمان، دغدغه بهبود یادگیری دانش‌آموزان، بهبود آموزش از طریق یادگیری و توسعه حرفه‌ای معلمان، مهارت‌های زندگی دانش‌آموزان و مدیریت تعارض جهت مدیریت مدرسه بهره می‌گرفتند و با چالش‌های مهمی مانند دغدغه تأمین منابع مالی مدرسه،حجم بالای مشغله‌های اداری مدیران و حجم بالای دانش‌آموزان و ضعف مدیریت کلاس‌ها نیز مواجه بودند. در مقایسه با ویژگی های بارز مدیران موفّق در تجارب بین‌المللی،فقدان توجه به ماموریت، بینش و ارزش‌های مدرسه، توجّه و حمایت از دانش‎آموز، برابری و پاسخگویی فرهنگی، مشارکت معنی‌دارجامعه ‌محلّی، توجه به برنامه‌درسی و به‌کارگیری معلمان توانمند در نتایج به دست آمده قابل ملاحظه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Exploring the characteristics of successful principals of elementary schools in Mashhad: A case study

نویسندگان [English]

  • atiye mansouri aval 1
  • rezvan Hosseingholizadeh 2
  • Somaie Ebrahimy Kooshak Mahdi 3
1 Masters Student, Hekmat Razavi Institute of Higher Education of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 PhD student, College of Education and Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study was conducted toexplore and describe the characteristics and practices used by successful school principals in Mashhad city.
The qualitative case study method was adopted. Participants included four principals of successful elementary schools in Mashhad city. In order to collect data, semi-structured interviews were conducted. To analyze data, Strauss and Corbin’s open and axial coding technique was used.
Findings showed that the most important personal and professional characteristics of the principals included: playing the role of leader, constructive relationships with the staff, principals’ command of school affairs, principals’ self-development (attempts for professional learning), and achievement of administrative success. Furthermore, the participating principals often made use of the following for managing their schools: planning and goal setting strategies, division of labor, teacher co-operation and involvement in school affairs, creating a friendly and positive climate at school, utilizing parents and colleagues’ potentials, encouragement and appreciation of teachers, supervising and evaluating teachers’ performance, concerning on improving students learning, improving teaching through teachers’ professional learning and development, focusing on students’ life skills and conflict management. In doing this, they also faced important challenges include concerning financing school expenses, high workload pressures, the high number of students, and poor class management. This is while some prominent features of successful managers in international experiences include defining the mission, vision, and values of the school, concerning student and support, equality and cultural accountability, the participation of the local community, attention to the curriculum, and the use of a competent teacher were not observed in this study.
In general, according to the findings of this study, playing a leadership role, constructive human relationships with staff, principal control over school affairs, principal self-development (striving for professional learning), administrative success, planning and goal setting, division of labor, cooperation and participation of teachers in school affairs, creating a friendly and calm climate of school, utilizing the capacities of parents and teachers in school, encouraging and appreciating teachers, monitoring and evaluating teachers' performance, concerns about improving students' learning, improving education through learning and developing teachers' professions, students’ life skills, conflict management, concerns about school funding, high levels of administrative workload, large number of students, and poor classroom management are also international experiences that are consistent with the characteristics of studied successful principals in this research.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Successful principal
  • Elementary schools
  • personal and professional characteristics
  • managerial strategies
  • school administration challenges
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