تحلیل رویکرد یادگیری مبتنی بر دیالکتیک در محاوره منون

نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی و مطالعات فرهنگی،‌ تهران، ‌ایران

10.22055/edus.2021.36859.3198

چکیده

محاوره منون موضوعات بسیار گوناگونی ازجمله بحث درباره چیستی فضیلت، امکان تحقیق، یادگیری، شیوه آموزش و درنهایت نظریه یادآوری را در برگرفته است. بحث از روش آموزش و یادگیری یکی از موضوعات مهم مورد بررسی در محاوره منون است. محاوره با طرح چالش منون نشان داده است که یادگیری و تحقیق درباره ماهیت یک‌چیز امری دشوار است. افلاطون برای رفع این معضل ازنظریه یادآوری به‌عنوان اصیل‌ترین شیوه یادگیری سخن گفته است. محاوره منون را می‌توان به دو بخش مجزا تقسیم‌ کرد. محوریت بخش اول مقاله پرسشی معرفت‌شناختی درباره شناخت ماهیت فضیلت است. در بخش دوم محاوره افلاطون برای رهایی از پارادوکس تحقیق و یادگیری و حرکت به‌سوی نتیجه مطلوب در بخش پایانی محاوره یعنی نظریه یادآوری بر رویکردی هستی شناختی تمرکز کرده است. روش پژوهش تحلیل فلسفی متن منون و تفاسیر مرتبط با آن است. سؤال پژوهش این است که آیا نظریه یادآوری بهترین تبیین برای شیوه اصیل یادگیری است؟ پاسخ پژوهش به این پرسش به دو دلیل منفی است. اول این‌که این نظریه قادر به پوشش هرگونه یادگیری نیست. دوم این‌که این نظریه با تئوری اولیه افلاطون در بخش آموختنی بودن فضیلت در تناقض است که افلاطون مدعی بود هرگونه یادگیری مستلزم وجود آموزش و به‌تبع آموزگار است. بنابراین هدف پژوهش طرح شیوه دیالکتیک در محاوره منون به‌عنوان مناسب‌ترین روش برای آموزش و یادگیری انتقادی و مشارکتی در نظام آموزشی است. این شیوه ماحصل مشارکت میان یاد دهنده و یادگیرنده است و بدون مشارکت فعال یادگیرنده و نگرش انتقادی آن به مطالب آموخته‌شده میسر نخواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of dialectical-based learning approach in Meno’s dialogue

نویسنده [English]

  • Mohsen Bohlooli Faskhoodi
Assistant Professor, Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Meno's dialogue covers a wide variety of topics, including the discussion of what virtue is, the possibility of inquiry, learning, teaching methods, the relationship between knowledge and imagination, and finally the theory of recollection. Discussion of the method of teaching and learning is one of the most important topics in Meno’s dialogue. In the text of this dialogue, important educational points such as the condition of teaching a subject, the method of learning based on recollection, and the dialectical method of Socrates are discussed. Conversation with Meno's paradox plan has shown that learning and inquiry the nature of something is difficult. To solve this problem, Plato spoke of the theory of recollection as to the most original way of learning.

Method
The method in this paper is philosophical-analytical based on Meno’s Text and its interpretations.

Results
The research aims to design a dialectical method in Meno’s dialogue as the most appropriate method for teaching and learning critically and collaboratively in the educational system. This method is the product of cooperation between the teacher and the learner and will not be possible without the active participation of the learner and his critical attitude towards the learned material.

Discussion
Meno’s dialogue can be divided into two separate parts. The focus of the first part of the article is an epistemological question about understanding the nature of virtue. In the second part of the dialogue, Plato focuses on an ontological approach to get rid of the paradox of research and learning and move towards the desired result. In the final part of the dialogue, the theory of recollection. The research question is whether the theory of recollection is the best explanation for the original way of learning? Research claims that the answer is negative for two reasons. First, this theory is not able to cover any learning. Second, this theory contradicts Plato's original theory of the teaching of virtue, in which Plato claimed that any learning requires education and, consequently, a teacher.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Virtue
  • Inquiry
  • learning
  • Recollection
  • Dialectic
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