از دبیرستان تا عرصه‌ی درمان در کلاس‌های معکوس: بررسی کاربست‌پذیری آموزش محتوا-محور مهارت خوانداری در تلفیق با بازی برای یادگیری مادام‌العمر علوم

نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات فناوری اطلاعات در امور سلامت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

2 گروه زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

10.22055/edus.2021.37095.3213

چکیده

این پژوهش طولی با استفاده از طرح تبینی متوالی و اقتباس آموزش تجمیعی در قالب نظریه‌ی شناختی-اجتماعی از سال‌های تحصیلی 1398 تا 1400 به ‌بررسی کاربردپذیری کلاس‌های معکوس محتوا-محور به زبان انگلیسی در یادگیری مادام‌العمر علوم دبیرستانی و دانشگاهی پرداخت. با کاربرد طرح آزمایش‌ها، 721 دانش‌آموز دختر و پسر فارسی و غیرفارسی زبان مشغول به ‌تحصیل در رشته‌ی علوم‌ تجربی پایه‌ی دوازدهم دبیرستان با حاشیه خطای 1% انتخاب و به ‌شکل تصادفی به چهار گروه تقسیم شدند تا مهارت درک علوم‌ را به شیوه‌ی محتوا-محور در کلاس‌های معکوس پیش-خوانداری با/بدون بازی واقعیت‌ افزوده فراگیرند. با ورود 84 نفر از شرکت‌کنندگان به دانشگاه‌های علوم پزشکی، آموزش تجمیعی محتوا-محور علوم دانشگاهی با انجام پیمایش، ارزیابی مستمر پیشرفت و عملکرد مهارت خواندار علوم در بافت و عرصه‌های حرفه‌ای و مصاحبه متمرکز در راستای تکمیل این پژوهش متممی ادامه یافت. تحلیل داده‌های کمی از طریق آزمون رتبه‌ای ویلکاکسون، ضریب همبستگی اسپیرمن، آنالیز واریانس با اندازه‌های مکرر و برازش مدل خطی آمیخته و تحلیل داده‌های کیفی به شیوه‌ی مضمون-محور انجام شد. تحلیل توصیفی و استنباطی داده‌ها از نقش تسهیل‌گری شیوه‌ی آموزش محتوا-محور در یادگیری مادام‌العمر علوم در کلاس‌های معکوس مبتنی بر بازی واقعیت افزوده در دبیرستان و دانشگاه حکایت داشت (9/6= ß و 05/0>p). از نگاه و برداشت شرکت‌کنندگان، تمرین مشارکتی خواندار علوم در گروه‌های همتایان مؤثر در یادگیری مادام‌العمر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

From Secondary Education to the Healthcare Fields: Exploring the Feasibility of English Content-based Instruction of Reading Sciences along with Games for Lifelong Learning

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeed Khazaie 1
  • amir mashhadi 2
1 Health Information Technology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of English Language and Literature, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz,, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Reading comprehension skills are the cornerstones of lifelong learning of sciences. The confluence of science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics has currently ushered in the close collaboration of English teachers with subject area teachers in non-English speaking countries to highlight the possible benefits of new methods of teaching and learning sciences (e.g., Content-Based Instruction or CBI) through English. In tandem, the integration of Augmented Reality Games (ARGs) into flipped classrooms has made provision for students to preemptively tackle the challenges that they are likely to face in the professional contexts. As such, the experiential comprehension of reading sciences introduces the concept of lifelong learning.
Method
This longitudinal study, using a sequential explanatory design and adopting co-teaching in the social constructivism throughout the academic years 2019-2021, explored the feasibility of CBI through English in the pre-reading flipped classrooms for the lifelong learning of secondary and postsecondary sciences. Using the design of experiments, 721 Persian and non-Persian male and female high-school students majoring in applied sciences were selected in the margin errors of 1%. The participants were then randomly divided into four groups to learn the sciences through CBI in the (non)-ARG-assisted flipped classrooms. To fulfill complementarity, the process of CBI in the (non)-ARG-assisted flipped class continued with teaching and formative assessment of the participants' reading comprehension skills in both instruction-learning and healthcare contexts, along with a survey and a focus-group interview. While the quantitative data were analyzed through the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Spearman's correlation coefficient, the repeated measures ANOVA, and the linear mixed effects model, the qualitative data were analyzed through MAXQDA.
Results and Discussion
Descriptive and inferential analyses of the data revealed the feasibility of CBI in the ARG-assisted flipped classrooms for teaching reading comprehension skills of sciences in both secondary and medical postsecondary education which, in turn, paved the way for lifelong learning (ß = 6.9, p<.05). From the participants' viewpoints, adopting an active role in doing the ARGs in the process of CBI of reading sciences facilitated their reading comprehension in favor of lifelong learning.

Conclusion
The findings revealed that English communication between students and co-teachers for the completion of the reading activities contributed to students' lifelong learning of reading comprehension skills.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Content-Based Instruction
  • Reading Comprehension
  • Augmented-Reality Game
  • Flipped classroom
  • Lifelong Learning
Ahmadi, A., Khalili, R., Khoshbin, M. R., Sharifzadeh Ekbatani, M. R., Sajjadi, S. H., Atighi, M., Mardukhi, S., & Niknam, A. R. (2018). Physics 3. Tehran: Iran Textbook Publishing Company. [Persian]
Al-Mohammad, S. A., Ebrahimi, M., Ansari, M., Alavi, M., Gholami, A., & Fakhrian, B. (2018). Biology. Tehran: Iran Textbook Publishing Company. [Persian]
Avry, S., Chanel, G., Bétrancourt, M., & Molinari, G. (2020). Achievement appraisals, emotions and socio-cognitive processes: How they interplay in collaborative problem-solving? Computers in Human Behavior, 107, 106267.
Badiee, E., Nili, M. R., Abedini, Y., & Zamani, B. (2019). The impact of courseware with brain-based learning approach on students' cognitive learning levels. Journal of Educational Sciences, 27(1), 139-160. [Persian]
Dabbagh, N., & Castaneda, L. (2020). The PLE as a framework for developing agency in lifelong learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68(6), 3041-3055.

Drake, R., Vogl A. W., Mitchell, A. (2019). Gray's anatomy for students. Elsevier Health Sciences. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Guyton, J. E., & Hall, C. G. (2016). Textbook of medical physiology. Elsevier: Philadelphia, PA.

Hayati, A., Jalilifar, A., & Mashhadi, A. (2013). Using short message service to teach English idioms to EFL students. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(1), 66-81.

Hazarkhani, H., Abedin, A. Kamiabi, Sh., Faraghi Alamdari, R., Golban Haghighi, H., Decamin, M. G., Abdullah Mirzaei, R., Badrian, A., Samiei, D. M., Shah Mohammadi, M., Bankdar Sakhi, R., Zamani Seifikar, H., Sirafizadeh, F., ZanjaniNejad, B., & Mokhtari, M. (2018). Chemistry 3. Tehran: Iran Textbook Publishing Company. [Persian]

Hilliard, J., Kear, K., Donelan, H., & Heaney, C. (2020). Students' experiences of anxiety in an assessed, online, collaborative project. Computers & Education, 143, 103675.

Hong, K. C., & Cho, Y. S. (2019). A novel engineering and creative learning process based on constructionism. Journal of Information and Communication Convergence Engineering17(3), 213-220.
Joybari, L. (2010). Methods that assess general clinical skills. Nursing knowledge from the classroom to the community. Retrieved from https://b2n.ir/401809 [Persian]
Khalifeh, Gh., Fardanesh, H., Hatami, J., Talaee, E. (2018). Design and validation a model for reinforcing critical thinking skills in online learning environments. Journal of Educational Sciences, 26(2), 109-130. [Persian]
Khazaie, S., Torabi, R., & Saghaee, A. (2020, February). Exploring the viability of Augmented Reality-based cognitive therapy of low working memory in English for medical purposes comprehension and performance. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Computer Games; Challenges and Opportunities 2020 February 19. University of Isfahan. Retrieved from http://cgco2020.ui.ac.ir/fa/

Nelson, D. L., & Cox, M. M. (2017). Lehninger principles of biochemistry. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Potter, P. A., Perry, A. G. E., Hall, A. E., & Stockert, P. A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing. Elsevier mosby.

Potyrała, K., & Tomczyk, Ł. (2021). Teachers in the lifelong learning process–examples of digital literacy. Journal of Education for Teaching, 1-19.
Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the horizon, 9(5).
Rahimi, N. M., Faisal, N. A., Kamarudin, M. Y., & Tukimin, R.(2021) The effectiveness of differentiated learning method on motivation and achievement of foreign language learning. Religación, 4, 161-164.
Sarmadi, M. R., Zare, A., Samadi, M., & Farajollahi, M. (2020). Examining the issues and dimensions of learning webs in Ivan Ilyich's view. Journal of Educational Sciences, 27(2), 119-138. [Persian]
Taherdoost, H. (2016). How to design and create an effective survey/ questionnaire; A step by step guide. International Journal of Academic Research in Management (IJARM), 5(4), 37-41.
Villalobos, O. B. (2014).  Content-based instruction: A relevant approach of language teaching. Innovaciones Educativas, 15(20), 71-85.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Socio-cultural theory. Mind in society, 6, 52-58.
Wu, H., & Badger, R. G. (2009). In a strange and uncharted land: ESP teachers' strategies for dealing with unpredicted problems in subject knowledge during class. English for Specific Purposes, 28(2009), 19-32.