بررسی چیستی و ابعاد شبکه‌های یادگیری در دیدگاه ایوان ایلیچ

نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری فلسفه تعلیم‌وتربیت دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران جنوب، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار، پژوهشگاه مطالعات آموزش‌وپرورش، تهران، ایران

10.22055/edus.2020.33406.3028

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف واکاوی مبانی نقادی ایلیچ از آموزش مدرسه‌ای و بررسی ماهیت و ابعاد شبکه‌های یادگیری به عنوان یک نظام آموزشی نوین انجام شده است. این پژوهش با رویکرد کیفی و با استفاده از روش پژوهش اسنادی-تحلیلی به توصیف و تحلیل شبکه‌های یادگیری مطرح شده از سوی ایوان ایلیچ و عناصر و ابعاد آنها پرداخته است. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که شبکه‌های یادگیری به دلیل تأکید بر فردگرایی؛ انتقال مسئولیت یادگیری از آموزشگاه و معلم به یادگیرنده؛ ساماندهی براساس نیازهای یادگیرندگان؛ بهره‌گیری از تخصص طیف گسترده‌ای از افراد به عنوان یاددهنده؛ تکیه بر دانش تخصصی و کاربردی به جای دانش نظری و آموزشگاهی؛ امکان یادگیری همیشه، برای همه، توسط همه و در همه جا؛ استفاده از منابع متنوع یادگیری به جای محتوای محدود آموزشگاهی؛ گستردگی و تنوع اشکال تعامل میان یادگیرنده، یاددهنده، محتوای آموزشی و رسانه؛ فراهم آوردن بستر بهره‌گیری از ظرفیت‌های برخط و مجازی برای ارائه خدمات آموزشی و تبدیل جامعه به جامعه یادگیرنده در سایه انتقال آموزش و یادگیری از چهاردیواری مدرسه به بطن جامعه، می‌تواند پاسخ‌گوی نیازهای آموزشی جامعه امروز باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Examining the Issues and Dimensions of Learning Webs in Ivan Ilyich's View

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Sarmadi 1
  • Azadeh Zare 2
  • masoumeh samadi 3
  • mehran farajollahi 1
1 Professor, Faculty of Payame Noor University of Tehran, Iran
2 Ph.D. Student in Philosophy of Education, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Research Institute of the Ministry of Education, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The study aimed to investigate the critical foundations of Illich from school education and to examine the nature and dimensions of learning networks as a new educational system. This research has been done with a qualitative approach. The research describes and analyzes the learning networks proposed by Ivan Illich and their elements and dimensions through documentary-analytical research method.
The research results showed that: Learning networks due to the emphasis on individualism; Organizing based on the needs of learners; Utilizing the expertise of a wide range of people as educators; Relying on specialized and applied knowledge instead of theoretical and school knowledge; Ability to learn always, for everyone, by everyone and everywhere; Use a variety of learning resources instead of limited school content; Extent and variety of forms of interaction between learner, teacher, educational content and media; Provide a platform for utilizing online and virtual capacities to provide educational services and Transforming society into a learning society in the shadow of transferring education and learning from the four walls of the school to the heart of society, can meet the educational needs of today's society.
The findings suggest that learning Webs are due to the emphasis on: individualism; self-control and self-direction; human resource empowerment; availability always, everywhere for everyone; reduction of the power of bureaucratic influence; intermixture of learning with real business environments. Rather than rebuilding them in schools; combining learning with the needs of learners and society; reviewing the role of inclusive and teacher; transferring the responsibility of learning from the educational institution to the learner; keeping learners in the learning process to exchange their skills with others; utilizing communication spaces Available as Internet; Expanding the concept of materials.
The synchronization of the traditional educational system with the change of information and technology is difficult and requires huge expenditures and in some areas impossible. Hence, as Illich says, instead of establishing schools, we must transform society into a learning and learning Society. A society whose most important features are individualism, independence, pragmatism, unpredictability, and hope. The time has come for the educational institutions to return the responsibility for learning to the people themselves, and only seek to pave the way for learning and providing the tools, knowledge and skills needed to learn. The use of learning Webs allows the educational community to take advantage of all its financial,

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • learning webs
  • Ivan Illich
  • Deschooling of society
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