آنارشیسم معرفتی - تحلیل ونقدی ازآراء فایرابند درفلسفه علم والزامات تربیتی آن

نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران.

10.22055/edus.2020.33319.3025

چکیده

تعلیم وتربیت ارتباط وثیقی با تصورما از«علم» دارد ودانشی که دیدگاه ما رادربارۀ علم تنقیح می کند«فلسفه علم» است. مکاتب فلسفه علم را ازدیدی کلان می توان به دودستۀ عمدۀ استقراگراونااستقراگراتقسیم کرد.فایرابند که متعلق به نحلۀ نااستقراگرادرفلسفۀعلم است وتولیدعلم رامحصول خلاقیت شخصی می داند،برخلاف عقلانیت انتقادی پوپرارزیابی نظریه هارانیزتابع روش های منطقی ـ تجربی نمی داندو«روش معین»برای علم راانکارمی کند. فایرابندجامعه ای آرمانی را دنبال می کند که درآن افراد،نه باتلقین وتکراروتبلیغ نظریه ها،بلکه با آزادی مطلق ازروش،وباتفکری نقادانه واستدلالی،مدعایی راقبول یا رد می کنند.وی نظام آموزشی موجودکه «علم»رابه عنوان یگانه راه وصول به حقیقت ودستیابی به سعادت،آموزش وتبلیغ وتلقین می کند،سخت موردانتقاد قرار می دهدومعتقداست علم حق حیات را از سنت های دیگر سلب کرده است.هدف پژوهش حاضربررسی پیشنهادهای اودربارۀ تعلیم وتربیت ونقدوتحلیل آنهااست.روش پژوهش تحلیلی-فلسفی است ونشان می دهدکه سخنان فایرابند گرچه به لحاظ منطقی خالی ازقوت نیست،امااوهیچ مکانیسمی برای عملیاتی شدن آن ایده هاارایه نکرده است. نتیجه پژوهش آنست که تازمانی که روش هایی عملی برای آن ایده هاارایه شود-اگراساساچنین چیزی عملی باشد-مهم ترین عامل درتحقق ایده آموزش نقادانه،وبطور کلی تربیت«انسان رشید»که فایرابند به تبعیت ازمیل دنبال می کند،دانش،خلقیات وشخصیت معلمان / اساتید است ونقش اساتید آموزش عالی دراین زمینه بسیارمهم تر از معلمان در آموزش پیش دانشگاهی است.آرمان های فایرابند از جنس فضایل اخلاقی اند وفضایل اخلاقی ،در کنار تکیه بر علم،از جنس عمل اند و«مصاحبت» با استادی صاحب فضیلت در این میان شاید مهم ترین نقش را درپیدایش آن به عهده داشته باشد.
کلید واژه: فایرابند، تعلیم وتربیت، علم، آنارشیسم معرفتی

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Critical Review On Educational Implications of Feyerabend’s Philosophy of Science

نویسنده [English]

  • Mohammad Hosein Ganji
Associate Professor, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. Ahvaz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Education is in a deep relationship with our perception of science and philosophy of science is a knowledge which shapes our perception of the nature of science. Different points of views in philosophy of science like positivistic views, critical rationalism, and after them the historical –sociological views of Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend, lead to different requirements and consequences in education. This paper studies Feyerabends views in philosophy of science and education and the consequences of his ideas.
Method:
The method in this paper is philosophical-analytical based on Feyerabend writings.
Results:
Although Feyerabend points of views are not weak, but he does not present any mechanism in order to make his suggestion practical. Until the time of introducing the methods to make his ideas practical, if assuming it possible ,the most important factor in realization of educating critical thinking and nurturing the modern and free thinker human being, which is considered by Feyerabend, is the characteristics and personal capabilities of teachers.
Discussion:
Paul Feyrabend is famous for his controversial views on philosophy of science. Two of his points of views are believed to be the most important ones: One is the incommensurability of scientific alternative theories and the other one is the negation of exact method in science production. There is another important aspect in Feyrabend’s views which is as important as the mentioned views. This important aspect is desacralizing of science and the denying of exclusive authority about new science. Denying of exact methods for new science, the incommensurability of theories, and the acceptance of knowledge relativity set the ground for all scientific claims.But Feyrabend thinks that the domination of science does not let the other epistemological traditions to express themselves.Almost all of the science philosophers ,except positivists such as Francis Bacon,believe that creation of scientific theories is not methodical,but for evaluating the theories both the positivistic inductive and Popperian non-inductive approaches see the science methodical. Feyrabend sees both the inductivism and Popperian non-inductivism unsuccessful in explaining the ups and downs of science and his famous quotation that “Anything goes” is a representative for his notion. He thinks that science is affected by the non-scientific factors .The hegemony of science,which has made the science as a sacred ideology,does not allow the other traditions to be seen.He looks at the nowadays educational institutions as the guards of the sanctity of science and the barriers of expressing other traditions. By elaborating on the aforementioned points, this paper aims at studying Feyrabend’s critiques about the educational system and his suggestions to improve the system and leads to a comprehensive philosophic evaluation of his suggestions.He imagines a free society in which,all of the traditions have equal rights and people choose based oncritical thinking and arguing rather than propaganda and under the authority of science and scientists.It can be said that he desires an utopian society than arealistic one. This paper illustrates that although his ideas are logically strong, there are lots of barriers to implement them in the society.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Feyerabend
  • Education
  • ُScience
  • Epistemological anarchism
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