احیای تعلیم و تربیت برای رهایی بخشی انسان با نظر به دیدگاه‌های هورکهایمر و آدورنو

نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری فلسفه نعلیم و تربیت و مدرس دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در دنیای امروز تعلیم و تربیت در تحقق اهداف و نیز تعارض میان اهداف علمی و اخلاقی با چالش‌هایی روبرو است. رویکرد ‏انتقادی با تمرکز بر وجود انسان و کنش‎‌‎گری وی، می‎‌‎تواند نظام تربیت را در بازگشت به اهداف جامع خویش یاری رساند. نوشتار ‏حاضر با تحلیل ابعاد رویکرد انتقادی، به ردیابی دلالت‎‌‎های آن در تربیت می‌پردازد. در گام نخست به منظور بررسی چرخش‌های ‏اساسی در رویکرد انتقادی از روش تحلیل زبانی استفاده شده است و در گام دوم به منظور استنتاج دلالت‌های تربیتی منتج از این ‏چرخش‌ها روش استنتاجی به کار گرفته شده است. رویکردانتقادی نسبت به رویکردهای فلسفی پیش از خود، قائل به چرخش-‏هایی است از این قرار: چرخش از تقدیرگرایی به کنش‎‌‎گری انسانی، چرخش از خرد‎ ‎ابزاری به خرد انتقادی، چرخش از یکسان‎‌‎سازی به تفاوت‌ها و چرخش از نظریه‎‌‎پردازی به پیوند نظر و عمل. این چرخش‌ها در عرصه تربیت، موجد تحولاتی خواهند شد. ‏از جمله می‌توان به این تحولات اشاره کرد: بررسی اهداف نظام تربیت و نسبت آنها با وضعیت موجود، حساسیت نسبت به ‏ایدئولوژی‎‌‎های ناظر بر سلطه، توجه به ابعاد اخلاقی دانش‎‌‎های فناورانه، تلاش برای ایجاد بسترهای کنش‎‌‎گری واقع‎‌‎گرایانه دانش-‏آموزان، توجه به لایه‎‌‎مندی هویت و تنوع هویت‎‌‎های فرهنگی/قومی. این چرخش‌ها را می‌توان در سه سطح فلسفی، سیاستگذاری ‏و روابط کلاسی-مدرسه ای دسته‌بندی کرد. نظام تربیت در وضعیت فعلی در تحقق چرخش ها با چالش‌هایی مواجه است که ‏تنوع بخشی به مدارس و مراجع راهبری، تقویت نهادهای علمی خارج از نهاد تربیت و تقویت اصلاحات خرد مدرسه ای –‏کلاسی می‌تواند راههای برون رفت از آنها تلقی شود.‏

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Reviving Education for Human Emancipation According to Horkheimer and Adorno’ Views

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoumeh Ramezani Fini 1
  • Narges Sajjadiyeh 2
1 Philosophy of Education (Ph.D.), University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction
‎ Nowadays, the educational system encounters some challenges in achieving to ‎its aims and ‎confliction between its moral and scientific aims. Regarding human existence and ‎agency in the ‎social state, critical theory can help the educational system in returning to its ‎inclusive aims. ‎Analyzing different dimensions of the critical theory as a philosophical view, this ‎paper ‎attempts to trace implications of these dimensions in the education. For this purpose, the views ‎of Horkheimer and Adorno in various philosophical-social fields has been considered
This article seeks to answer three questions‏:‏‎
‎1. What are the characteristics of a critical theory on social issues?‎
‎2. Based on critical theory, in what areas does the education system need reform to revive itself?‎
‎3. What are the ways out of the current educational challenges?‎
Therefore this paper seeks to provide a new way out of the present situation by presenting a new ‎formulation of the views of Horkheimer and Adorno in the form of rotations that link the status ‎quo to the desired situation.‎

Method
The methodological approaches in this paper will be mainly linguistic analysis and deductive ‎method. ‎
‏ ‏At the ‎first part, the linguistic analysis method is applied to In the context of Horkheimer's and ‎Adorno's thought, the concepts re-analyzed for examining the main turns proposed by ‎critical ‎theory and at the second part, for deducting the educational implications of these ‎turns we apply ‎practical deductive method. ‎ ‎

Results
‎ Comparing to previous philosophical approaches, critical theory has proposed new ‎turns. Some ‎of these are: turn from fatalism to human agency, turn from instrumental reason to ‎critical ‎reason, turn from homogenization to differences and, turn from theorizing to ‎conjunction ‎between theory and action. These shifts, in these turn, can cause a series of ‎revolutions in the ‎educational area. Among these, it can be mentioned: examining aims and ‎comparing them with ‎the real educational affairs, sensitivity about ideologies of domination, ‎regarding moral ‎considerations of technological knowledge, preparing appropriate contexts for ‎realistic ‎students agency and regarding layering of human identity.‎

Discussion
We can categorize these turns in ‎three philosophical, policy making and school-class relational ‎levels. It seems that educational ‎system encounters challenges for their realization. Some ‎enterprises like permission to diversity ‎of schools and references of strategies, reinforcement of ‎scientific institution which are external ‎to educational system and, supporting micro-level class-‎school revolutions can be assumed as ‎exit ways of those challenges.‎‏
Key words: Critical education, instrumental reason, critical reason, emancipation, ‎ deductive-‎analytical method

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Critical education
  • instrumental reason
  • critical reason
  • emancipation
  • deductive-analytical method
Ahmadi, B. (2013). Memories of Darkness: About the Three Thinkers of the Frankfurt School, Walter Benjamin, Max Horkheimer, Theodore Adorno. Tehran: Markaz. [Persian]
Bagheri, KH. Sajjadieh, N. Tavassoli, T. (2010) Approaches and Research Methods in Philosophy of Education. Tehran: Institute for Cultural and Social Studies. [Persian]
Benton, T., & Craib, Y. (2001). Philosophy of Social Science; the Philosophical Foundations of Social Thought. Translated by: Shahnaz Mosammaparast & Mahmoud Motahed (2012). Tehran: Agah.
Bidel, P., & Mahmoud Zade, A. (2012). Study on the Social Belonging of People to Iranian Society and its Relationship with Social Trust and Individualism. Journal of Iranian Cultural Research. 5(2) 18, 31-63. [Persian]
Britzman, D. (2000). Teacher Education in the Confusion of Our TimesJournal of Teacher Education. 51, 200-205.
Brunkhorst, H. (2004). Critical Theory and the Analysis of Contemporary Mass Society. The Cambridge Companion to Critical Theory. Cambridge University Press. 248-279.
Giroux, H. (2004). Critical Theory and Educational Practice. Deakin
University Press.
Giroux, H. (2004.) What Might Education Mean After Abu Ghraib:Revisiting Adorno’s Politics of Education. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East. 24(1), 5-24.
Gutek, G. (2009). Philosophical Schools and Educational Ideas. Translated by: Mohammad Jafar Paksaresht. Tehran: Samt [Persian]
Heins, V. (2012). Saying Things that Hurt: Adorno as Educator. Thesis Eleven. 110(1), 68–82.
Horkheimer, M. (1968). Critical Theory :Selected Essays. Translated by Matthew J. O'Connel and others (2002). Continuum New York
Horkheimer, M. (1947). Eclipse of Reason. Seabury Press.
Horkheimer, M., & Adorno, Th. (1987). Dialectic of Enlightenment. Translated by Edmund Jephcott (2002). Stanford University Press
Jay, M. (1973). History of the Frankfurt School. Translated by: Genghis Pahlavan(1993). Tehran: Kavir [Persian]
Lewis, T. (2006). Utopia and Education in Critical Theory. Policy Futures in Education, 4(1), 6-17.
Marjani, B. (2006). Critical Approach in Education. Educational Research and Planning Organization Journal, 2(1 & 2), 71-90.
Naghibzadeh, A. (2011). Take A Look: Twentieth-Century Philosophical Attitudes. Tehran: Tahouri [Persian]
Rashid, Kh. (2015). High-Risk Behaviors among Adolescent Girls and Boys in Tehran. Ministry of Science Journal, 57, 31-56. [Persian]
Razazi far, A. (1998). Investigating the Concept of Collective Identity and the Position of National Identity in Mashhad with Emphasizing the Impact of Two Factors of Socialism and Distributive Justice on Social Identity. Ferdowsi Mashhad University. [Persian]
Roberts, J. (2004). Dialectic of Enlightenment. The Cambridge Companion to Critical Theory. Edited by Fred Rush. University of Notre Dame.
Sajadieh, N. (2017). Iranian Encyclopedia of Curriculum, Critical Theory in Curriculum.
Sherratt, Y. (2000). Adorno and Horkheimer Concept of Enlightenment, British Journal for History and Philosophy, 8(3), 521-544.
Sherratt, Y. (2006). Continental Social Science Philosophy: Hermeneutics, Genealogy, and Critical Theory from Ancient Greece to the 21st Century. Translated by: Hadi Jalili (2014). Tehran: Ney [Persian]
Wilson, R. (2007). Theodore Adorno. Translated by: Pooya Amini (2009). Tehran: Markaz [Persian]