عنوان مقاله [English]
Education in the face of developments, in the field of communication and information, the issue of preserving the linguistic and cultural identity of ethnicities, and the emergence of theories such as pluralism, globalization and so on cannot act passively. Undoubtedly, monocultural education in a multicultural society will not work well. The need for a multicultural approach to education is that education must strengthen the areas of participation, emancipation from specific identity prejudices, good citizenship, thinking and rationality, new identity creation, socialization, development. Education justice and peaceful coexistence. An important step on the path to multicultural education is to transform school management.
The present study was conducted using thematic analysis method. The statistical population consisted of written sources related to the subject in famous scientific databases and at the time of publication from 2000 to 2019, finally 50 cases were selected as sample. and experts in the field of educational sciences. Finally, 12 people were selected by purposeful method.
The results led to the development of a conceptual model with three general components: multicultural school characteristics with 5 categories and 19 subcategories, school principal characteristics with 3 categories and 16 subcategories, and the role of stakeholders with 3 categories and 9 subcategories.
Generally in multicultural schools, policies, strategies and Programs should be based on cultural pluralism. The processes of planning, organizing material and human resources, teaching and learning, staff empowerment, and monitoring and evaluation with a multicultural approach should be done. The school should be in full contact with the diverse social and cultural environment around it; the physical environment of the school should be influenced by the diverse culture of the individuals and individuals act and behave on the basis of justice, non-prejudice and mutual respect. The leader of a multicultural school must have a transcendental personality, free from racial prejudice, with interactive psychological traits, and ethics and collectivistic behavior. Also he must have multicultural professional competencies such as awareness of other cultures, multicultural specialist knowledge and multicultural life experience, and multicultural leadership skills such as intercultural communication skills, managing a diverse environment, managing change for pluralism, and managing cultural conflicts. . In multicultural school, stakeholders include teachers, students, parents and the community have roles such as: facilitating multicultural education; participating in school management; tackling inequality, racism and cultural domination; modifying social behavior; transforming cultural values of individuals and ethnic groups; encouraging students, especially minority groups; social and cultural participation; social responsibility and sharing of cultural experiences; supporting school principals; extracurricular social education; enrichment of leisure time.