عنوان مقاله [English]
The main purpose of current research is to explain the post-phenomenology in training and learning, with emphasis on the concepts of multistability and transparency. Phenomenology has faced different perspectives over time and Ihde in his later prespective has presented a new look at post-phenomenology and has emphasized on the components of phenomenology. In his view, Phenomenology deals with the relationship among man, world and technology. The Post-phenomenology studies examine the relation of users with humans and technology, and this, according to Ihde, is a way of doing phenomenology rather than discussing it, and thus he introduces technological case studies.
To achieve this goal, conceptual analysis and inductive methods have been used. The method of answering the first question (what explanation of the post-phenomenology in technological studies can be presented?) is a kind of Conceptual analysis method called "concept interpretation" that seeks to provide an explicit explanation of the meaning of a concept by explicitly explaining the relation of this concept to other concepts and also describing that concept in terms of actions and human perceptions. In answering the second question, (the implications of post-phenomenology with emphasis on the concepts of multiplicity and transparency in teaching and learning), it is tried to use the inference method. "In this method, it is assumed that any philosophical system, can entail an educational theory, therefore, it provides necessities and prescriptions for proper adjustment of educational environments.
This approach can be useful if we want to deeply study how the experience and perception transformation of teachers and students in using educational technologies. Post-phenomenology has “different flavors” for all of the scholars who enter this field. Hence, the path to other researches in the field of modern educational technologies and philosophical scrutiny is open with this approach, and scholars can achieve valuable results with the help of developed concepts in this philosophical approach.
Many concepts have been formed in the field of post-phenomenology, in which the emphasis is on two major concepts of "multistability" and "transparency" and its implications for training and learning. In this regard, the most important implications of the concept of multistability can be the development of the correct technological habits, limiting the students to the prevalent use of technology, very short rest periods, and the implications of transparency for the enhancement of skills in the use of technology, repeat and practice for normalization, and use of automated training technologies.