بازشناسی مفهوم «موقعیت» در رویکردهای تربیت ارزشی معاصر

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فلسفه تعلیم و تربیت، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشگاه تهران،تهران،ایران

3 دانشگاه شهید بهشتی،تهران،ایران

4 دانشگاه باقرالعلوم،قم،ایران

10.22055/edus.2019.27776.2684

چکیده

موقعیت یک مفهوم حیاتی برای هر نظریه و مکتب تربیتی است و موفقیت تربیت ارزشی در گرو یک تلقی صحیح از موقعیت‌مندی است. در این پژوهش سه جریان مهم و اثرگذار معاصر که توجه خاصی به موقعیت در تربیت ارزشی نشان داده‌اند، انتخاب شده و انگاره‌ی موقعیت نزد آن‌ها مورد تحلیل قرار گرفته‌است. این کار بر اساس «روش تحلیل زبانی و مفهومی» در زبان فنی و رسمی صورت گرفته‌است. بر این اساس «موقعیت به مثابه کل» در رویکرد پراگمایستیم دیویی؛ «موقعیت به مثابه شرایط عمل»، در رویکرد نوارسطوگرایی، و «موقعیت به مثابه محرک‌های محیط» در رویکرد ضد ارسطوگرایی احصاء شده‌اند. نتایج پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که توجه به موقعیت در تقابل با رویکردهای اقتدارگرا در طیف‌های مختلف تربیت ارزشی مشترک است. رویکردهای سه گانه علی رغم اشتراکاتی اشتراکاتشان، دامنه‌ی متفاوتی برای موقعیت در نظر می‌گیرند؛ به گونه‌‌ای که از سه لایه، غایات، تطبیق مصادیق، و رفتار، پراگماتیسیم دیویی هر سه را، نو ارسطویی تطبیق مصادیق و رفتار را، و ضد ارسطوگرایی صرفا رفتار را وابسته به موقعیت قلمداد می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Recognition of the concept of "Situation" in contemporary approaches to values education

نویسندگان [English]

  • davoud hoseinpour 1
  • Mohammadreza Sharafi 2
  • Jamile Alamolhoda 3
  • Hosein Souzanchi 4
1 University of Tehran, Tehran,Iran
2 University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
3 University of Shahid Beheshti , Tehran, Iran.
4 University of Bagher al-olum, Qom, Iran.
چکیده [English]



Introduction
the term "values education" applies to all aspects of the process of education, which either explicitly or implicitly relate to ethical and axiological dimensions of life and are such that can be structured, guided,
And monitored with appropriate educational methods and tools. But in general education and values education in particular is faced with the challenge of time and space. But education in general and values education in particular is faced with the challenge of locality. Therefore the situation is a vital concept for educational theories, and the success of value education depends on the proper perception of situation. In this research, three important and influential contemporary approaches in value education that have shown particular attention to the situation have been selected and their perception of the situation has been analyzed.
Method
This is based on the "linguistic and conceptual analysis" method in the technical and formal language.
Results
In contrast to the authoritarian approaches, attention to the situation is commen in the various values of education. Triple approaches, in spite of their commonalities, consider a different domain for situation: In the Dewey's approach all of the "ends", "the implementation of the principle" and "behavior" are situational. In the NeoAristotlelians approach just "the implementation of the principle" and "behavior" are situational. And in the anti-Aristotelian approach only the "behavior" is sitational.
Discussion
"The situation as a whole" in the Dewey's pragmatism approach; "Situation as the conditions of action", in the NeoAristotlelians approach, and "Situation as the stimuli of the environment" in the anti-Aristotelian approach, have been recognized. In analyzing the concept of position in these three approaches, attention to surrounding concepts is very effective in determining its semantic distinctions; the concept of Situation in Dewey's pragmatism must be understood in relation to the surrounding concepts of "experience", "desire", "environment" and "organism". On the other hand, the concept of the sitution in Neo-Aristotelianism is related to the peripheries concepts such as "action", "reasoning", "virtue" and "personality".and finally In the anti-Aristotelian approach, the concept of siyuation is related to the peripheral concepts such as "environment", "behavior", "experiential adequacy" and the same time is in contrast the concept of "person".
Key Words: Situation, Pragmatism, Neo-Aristotelianism, Anti-Aristotelianism

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Situation"
  • "Pragmatism"
  • "Neo-Aristotelianism"
  • "Anti-Aristotelianism"

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