عنوان مقاله [English]
Regarding the affordances of an online learning environments, it is expected that such environments facilitate teaching and learning processes and increase higher-order thinking skills, especially critical thinking skills. However, evidence suggests that many of online learning courses are designed in ways that do not carry the required capacity to enhance higher order thinking skills such as t critical thinking skills. The purpose of this study is to design and validate a model for reinforcing students' critical thinking skills in an online learning environment.
The present study uses a mixed-method research approach including content analysis and survey. The content analysis focused on a corpus of all research articles indexed in the database. We used a targeted sampling method for inclusion. For survey research we used a convenient sampling method to select among the body of experts in the field of instructional technology. The sample size included 20 participants.The instrument used for the survey was developed by the researcher and was validated using a expert panel of seven experts in the field of instructional technology. The reliability of the tool was ensured using a test-retest method. The correlation coefficient (0.94) between the two tests was significant at the level of p = 0.01.
The findings of the research indicated that the proposed model elements for reinforcement the students' critical thinking skills in the online learning environment, including the presentation of the problem and the stimulating events, explored and searched the nature of the problem, the discussion, and argumentation about the proposed problem, the presentation of the solution, cognitive presence and social presence. Guided by the observed themes, we also came up with proposed design model. Finally, the themes were cross validated in consultation with a subgroup of 20 experts in the field of educational technology.
Based on the results of the present study, the presentation of the problem or stimulating events should happen in the early phase of the instructional design model. In the next stage, the learning environment should provide an opportunity for students to explore the nature of the problem. This stage should be followed by an opportunity for learners to discuss different sides of the problem and ultimately present their solutions and reasoning that comes with it. Both social and teaching presence are elements that are present throughout the steps and processes of reinforcement critical thinking skills in online learning environments. The two aspects are important in design of learning environment because they create not only an affective bond for students but also balance and systematize the process of learning activities.
The results of the present study indicate that online learning environments, if designed systematically and following sound design principles as shown in the present study, have the very potential to enhance critical thinking skills.
Anderson, T., Rourke, L., Garrison, d. R., & Archer, w. (2001). Assessing teacher presence in a computer conferencing context. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 5 (2), 1-17.
Association of American Colleges & Universities. (2010). Raising the bar: Employers’ views on college learning in the wake of the economic downturn. Washington, DC: Hart Research Associates.
Ataran, M., Larkian, M., Fazeli. N., & Aliaskari, M. (2012). Identifying the Culture of Electronic Learning Curriculum: A Case Study in Iran. Higher Education Curriculum Studies, 3, 7-41. [Persian].
Caplan, D., & Graham, R. (2011). The development of online courses. In T. Anderson (Eds), Theory and practice of online learning (pp. 245-263), Alberta: Athabasca University.
Brierton, S., Wilson, E., Kistler, M., Flowers, J., & Jones, D. (2016). A Comparison of Higher Order Thinking Skills Demonstrated in Synchronous and Asynchronous Online College Discussion Posts. NACTA Journal, 60 (1), 14-21.
Ennis, R. H. (1987). A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities. In J, B. Baron, & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Teaching Thinking Skills Theory and Practice, (9-26).
Ernst, J., & Monroe, M. (2006). The effects of environment-based education on students' critical thinking skills and disposition toward critical thinking. Environmental Education Research, 12 (34), 429-443.
Facione, P. A. (2006). Critical thinking: What is it and why it counts? Retrieved February 14, 2014, from: http:www.InsightAssessment.com
Fardanesh, H. (2013). Theoretical foundations of instructional technology. Tehran: Publication of Samt. [Persian].
Fisher, R. (2006). Education and thinking. Translated by Forough Kianzadah (2010). Ahwaz: Publication of Rasesh. [Persian]
Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2 (3), 87–105.
Garrison, D. R., & Anderson, T. (2003). E-Learning in the 21st Century; A Framework for Research and Practice. Routledge Falmer.
Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2010). The first decade of the community of inquiry framework: A retrospective. Internet and Higher Education, 13, 5–9.
Garrison, D. R., & Archer, W. (2000). A transactional perspective on teaching and learning: A framework for adult and higher education, Oxford, UK: Pergamon.
Garrison, D. R., & Arbaugh, J. B. (2007). Researching the community of inquiry framework: Review, issues, and future directions. The Internet and Higher Education, 10(3), 157–172.
Gharib, M., Sarmadi, M. R., Ebrahimzadeh, I., Zareh, H., Emami, A. H., Gharib, A. (2010). Learning critical thinking in virtual medical education: A qualitative study of faculty members and student's experiences. Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, 17(3), 169-179. [Persian]
Grafstein, A. (2007). Information literacy and technology: An examination of some issues. Portal: Libraries and the Academy. 7 (3), 51–64.
Hajrazaee, B., Ali Benec, H., Shahalizadeh, M., Zynali, M., Badali, M. (2015). The Effectiveness of Integrated Learning on Nursing Students' Critical Thinking Skills. Journal of Nursing, 4(11), 49-59. [Persian]
Halpern, D. (1998). Teaching Critical Thinking for transfer across domain. California State University, San Bernardino. CA, US. American Psychologist, 53(4), 449-455.
Huang, N. P. W., Lee, D. W. (2004). A discourse analysis of asynchronous discussion board on students critical thinking. Nall J, Robson R, editors. Proceedings of world conference on elearning in corporate, government, healthcare, and higher education; Chesapeake, USA. 708- 713.
Huff, M. (2000). A comparison study of live instruction versus interactive television for teaching MSW students critical thinking skills. Research on Social Work Practice. 10 (4), 400-416.
Jonassen, D. H. (1999). Designing constructivist learning environments. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (II, 215-239). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Jennifer A. M., Gary, R. M., & Ginger, S. W. (2017). Presence and learning in a community of inquiry. Distance Education, 38(2), 245-258.
Kantar, L. D. (2014). Assessment and instruction to promote higher order thinking in nursing students. Nurse Education Today. 34 (3) 789–794.
Kian, M., Ataran, M, & Fazeli, N. (2012). Evolution of electronic learning culture in Iranian universities: A grounded theory research. Quarterly of Iranian Association of Cultural and Communication Studies, 7(24), 95-127. [Persian]
Kiener, M., Ahuna, K. H., & Tinnesz, C.G. (2014). Documenting critical thinking in a capstone course: Moving students towards a professional disposition. Educational Action Research, 22(1), 109-121.
Krippendorff, K. (1969). Models of messages: three prototypes. In G. Gerbner, O.R. Holsti, K. Krippendorff, G.J. Paisly & Ph.J. Stone (Eds.), The analysis of communication content. New York: Wiley.
Lee, S-M. (2014). the relationships between higher order thinking skills, cognitive density, and social presence in online learning. Internet and Higher Education, 21, 41–52.
Lin, Y. L., & Lin, H. W. (2014). A study on the goal value for massively multiplayer online role-playing games players. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(6), 2153-2160.
Lya, V., & Yusra, V. (2002). Critical thinking and discourse in distance education and traditional education. International Conference of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology; 12-16; Dallas, Texas.
Macknight, C. (2000). Teaching critical thinking through online discussions. Educes Quarterly. 4, 38-41.
McMahon, G. (2009). Critical Thinking and ICT Integration in a Western Australian Secondary School. Educational Technology and Society, 12 (4), 269–281.
Meyers, C. (1986). Teaching students to think critically. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Mohamadpour, A. (2010). Sampling in qualitative research: Types and methods. Journal of Educational Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, 5(4), 38-44. [Persian].
Moradi Mokhles, H., Ahmadi, R., Mohamadi, B. (2014). The CRDOMLAER Seven-Step Training Strategy for Cultivating Critical Thinking in E-Learning Environments. Journal of Research in Educational Systems, 8 (24), 204-93. [Persian]
Naidu, S. (2003). Designing instruction for e-learning environments. In M. G. Moore & W. G. Anderson (Eds.), Handbook of distance education, 349–365.
Noroozi, O., Kirschner, P., Biemans, H. J. A., & Mulder, M. (2017). Promoting argumentation competence: Extending from first- to second-order scaffolding through adaptive fading. Educational Psychology Review. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10648-017-9400-z.
Rumpagaporn M. W., & Darmawan, I. G. (2007). Students’ critical thinking skills in a Thai ICT schools pilot project. International Education Journal. 8(2), 125-132.
Saade, R. G., Morin, D., & Thomas, J. (2012). Critical thinking in E-learning environments. Computers in Human Behavior. Computers in Human Behavior. 28(5), 1-10.
Shabani, H. (2004). Advanced teaching method: (teaching skills and thinking strategies). Tehran: Publication of Samt. [Persian].
Swan, K., & Ice, P. (2010). The community of inquiry framework ten years later: Introduction to the special issue. Internet and Higher Education, 13, 1–4.
Wang, S. (2017). An Exploration into Research on Critical Thinking and Its Cultivation: An Overview. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 7 (12), 1266-1280.
Wang, V. & Torrisi-Steele, G. (2015). Online Teaching, Change, and Critical Theory. New Horizons in Adult Education & Human Resource Development, 27(3), 18-26.
Watson, G., & Glaser, E. M. (1980). Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal. Cleveland, OH: Psychological Corporation.