واکاوی اصول حاکم بر طراحی الگوی مطلوب برنامه‌درسی تربیت اخلاقی در دوره ابتدایی نظام آموزشی ایران

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دبیرخانه شورای عالی انقلاب فرهنگی.

2 دانشیار و عضو هیات علمی تخصص: فلسفه تعلیم و تربیت دانشگاه شهید بهشتی: دانشکده روان شناسی و علوم تربیتی

3 استاد گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

10.22055/edus.2019.26634.2585

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف استخراج اصول حاکم بر طراحی الگوی برنامه‌درسی تربیت اخلاقی در دوره ابتدایی نظام آموزشی ایران انجام شده است. این پژوهش با رویکرد کیفی و با روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی انجام گرفته است. نمونه آماری شامل متخصصان و معلمان با تجربه دوره ابتدایی بودند که با روش نمونه-گیری هدفمند انتخاب شدند. ابزار مورد استفاده، مصاحبه نیمه‌ساختاریافته بود. برای تحلیل داده‌های کیفی از روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی استقرایی بهره برده شد. در نهایت بر اساس 9 مقوله کلی 25 اصل استخراج گردید. در مقوله رویکرد، اصولی مانند شایستگی‌محوری و فراگیری؛ در مقوله اهداف و مقاصد، اصولی مانند جامعیت اهداف، پرهیز از غایت‌زدگی و کثرت‌گرایی در گزینش ارزش‌های اخلاقی؛ در مقوله محتوا، اصولی مانند تناسب، موقعیت‌محوری، تأکید بر الگوی مارپیچی و یادگیری چندحسی؛ در مقوله روش‌های یاددهی- یادگیری، اصولی مانند محوریت عادت‌آموزی، بسط فعالیت‌های یاددهی- یادگیری به خارج از کلاس درس؛ در مقوله نقش نیروی انسانی، اصولی مانند اصل همگانی بودن مسئولیت تربیت اخلاقی، اصل عاملیت اخلاقی و صلاحیت‌های حرفه‌ای معلم؛ در مقوله ارزشیابی، اصولی مانند تفاوت پارادایمی و کارکردی در ارزشیابی و تنوع منبع داده‌ها در ارزشیابی و در نهایت در مقوله زمان و مکان، اصولی مانند تابعیت مکان و زمان از موقعیت یادگیری و مکان‌ها و زمان‌های سهیم و مؤثر در تربیت اخلاقی استخراج گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Examining the dominant principles in the Designing of the appropriate Model for moral Education in the Elementary Period of the Iranian Educational System

نویسندگان [English]

  • seyyed ramzan aghili 1
  • . Jamileh alamolhod 2
  • kourosh fathi vajargah 3
1 Secretariat of the Supreme Council for Cultural Revolution
2 Associate Professor and Faculty Member Specialty: Philosophy of Education Shahid Beheshti University: Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences
3 : Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Purpose: Moral education as a serious content area of most educational systems has attracted more attention from educational philosophy perspective than from curriculum designers. Although such research studies have contributed to the growth of this field, but they have almost failed to yield any operational insight for empowering educational authorities. On the other hand, a review of top-level policy documents in the field of education reveals that, despite the real emphasis on moral education in such documents, no moral education curriculum has ever been developed for general courses. Therefore, it seems that moral education has been neglected in formal educational system. To fill such a gap, this study aimed to identify the main principles governing moral education curriculum development.
Method: This study used a qualitative approach and an inductive content analysis method. The participants consisted of experts in the field and experienced teachers of the primary school. The data was collected by semi-structured interviews.
Results: According to the results, 9 general categories with their 25 related principles were extracted. The principles included core competency, comprehensive goal-setting, situationality, focus on habituation, universal responsibility of moral education, diversity of sources of data in assessments, and determination of learning situation based on time and place.
Discussion: Generally the suggested principles governing moral education curriculum have been developed in response to shortcomings in moral education process and aim to shift away from the instruction of values to moral education. The limited definition of ethics in moral education process, the limitation of ethics to the level of cognition, and the limitation of moral content in the area of moral knowledge constitute the main shortcomings. The present curriculum made an attempt to fill in this gap by focusing on ethics as a competency as well as emphasizing other aspects of moral development such as attitude and moral deeds. On the other hand, to fulfill moral education goals, all the resources of the school should be used in harmony with each other. Therefore, learning should not be limited to classroom, and the responsibility of moral education should not fall on the teacher only. As a result, an effective moral education curriculum makes use of all the potential learning resources such as a discipline-based curriculum, integration into other courses at the micro level, and integration with the whole school at the macro-level. To do so, all those who are involved, directly or indirectly, in the process of moral education should understand the importance of this area of learning and its relationship with other areas and perform their respective duties.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Moral education
  • Curriculum
  • Principles
  • Elementary Period

Afkari, F. (2014). Review of ethical education approaches in the elementary period in elementary school textbooks. PhD thesis, curriculum studies field, Allame Tabataba'i University. [Persian]

Arthur, G., Kristjánsson, K., Harrison. T. Sanderse. W. Wright. D (2017). Teaching Character and Virtue in Schools. London and New York. Routledge.

Baratizadeh, A. (2014). Study the ethical components in the textbooks of Persian and sky gifts. Master's thesis. Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences. [Persian]

Berkowitz, M. W., & Bier, M. C. (2015). Research-based character education. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 591, 72–85.

Bischoff, K. (2016). "The Civic Effects of Schools: Theory and Empirics", Theory and Research in Education, 14(1), 91-106.

Curren, R. (2014a). Judgment and the aims of education. Social Philosophy and Policy, 31(1), 36-59.

Curren. R., & kotzee. B (2014). "Can Virtue be measured?" Theory and Research in Education, 12(3), 266-282.

Ghaffari, A., & Bagheri Noparast, K. (2001). Virtuous moral education from the perspective of David Carr. Journal of the School of Theology of Mashhad, 53 and 54, Pages: 158-184. [Persian]

Guba, E. G., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1981). Effective evaluation: Improving the usefulness of evaluation results through responsive and naturalistic approaches. Jossey-Bass.

Hassani, M. (2014). The study of the evolution of the curriculum of moral education in Iran with emphasis on general course. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 9(33), 57-92. [Persian]

Hassani, M. (2012). School and moral education: moral education in the formal education system of several countries. Tehran, school publication. [Persian]

Hassani, M. (2016). Investigating the ethical education approach in the formal and general education system in the elementary period. The Islamic Revolutionary Training. 11(28), 1-28. [Persian]

Iman, M., & Noshadi, M. (2011). Qualitative content analysis. Research, 2 (4), 15-44. [Persian]

Jainz, A. (2017). "The Re-emergence of Character Education in American Education Policy", American Journal of Educational Studies, 53, 239-254.

Kaid, L. L., & Wadsworth, A. J. (1989). Content analysis. Measurement of Communication Behavior, 197-217.

Karimi, R. (2018). A criticism of Tusi, N, A-D interpretation of Aristotelian habituation. Journal of Educational Sciences, 25(1), 65-86.

Kayal, H.  (2014). Compare MacIntyre's and Mullah Ahmad Naraghi's views on virtuous morality. Master's Degree in History and Philosophy of Education. Tehran, Shahid Beheshti University, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences. [Persian]

Kristjánsson, K. (2016). Aristotelian Character Education. London: Routledge.

Lapsley, D. K., & Yeager, D. S. (2012)Moral-character education. In W. M Reynolds, G. E. Miller and I. W. Weiner (eds), Handbook of Psychology, vol. 7. Educational Psychology, 2nd edn. (pp. 289–348). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Mirshah Jafari, I., & Kalbasi, A. (2009). "Moral-based curriculum view based on character education ". Moral Knowledge, 1(1), 171-194.

Ram, S., Mehrmohammadi, M., Sadeghzadeh Ghamsari, A., Talaei, E. (2017). Self-control education for children ages 7 to 14: Which logic and approach. Journal of Applied Issues on Islamic Education Issues, 2(3), 87-116. [Persian]

Ringer, M. M. (2006). Education, Religion and Discourse for Cultural Revolution in the Qajar period, translate by haghightkhah. Tehran, Phoenix Publishing House. [Persian]

Sajadiyeh, N., &sourani, S. (2016). A Comparative View of Plato's and Aristotle's Thoughts on Habit: A Challenge to Concept and Practice. Journal of Educational Sciences, 24 (2), 25-48. 

Shameli, A. Maleki, H. and Kazemi, H. (2011). A curriculum is a tool for achieving moral education. Islam and Educational Research, 2(3), 77-98. [Persian]

Straughan, R. (2014). Can We Teach Children to be good? Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Supreme Council for Education (2012). National curriculum document. Tehran, Supreme Council of Education. [Persian]

Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution (2011a). Theoretical Basics of the Transformation of Education. Tehran, Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution. [Persian]

Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution (2011b). Document on the fundamental transformation of education. Tehran. Supreme Council for Cultural Revolution. [Persian]