عنوان مقاله [English]
Identification of entrepreneurial competencies of the faculty members of Iran's state universities (case study: Shahid Beheshti University)
This study purports to identify the entrepreneurial competencies of the faculty members of the Iran's state universities. For this purpose, 17 faculty members of the Shahid Beheshti University, sampled using a purposeful sampling procedure, were interviewed in a semi-structured interview and their enrepreneurial competencies were identified. After thematic analysis of the data a sum of 69 sub-competencies were identified and categorized into 9 major categories using focus group procedure. These entrepreneurial competencies included opportunity competency, commitment competency, communication competency, management competency, reconciliation competency and acting as both a faculty member and an entrepreneur, growth and development competency, business competency, sterategic competency, and technical-expertise competency. Adding to our knowledge on the academic entrepreneurship, the results of this study can also be of help to policy-makers in the development of educational policies and supportive policies with regard to academic entrepreneurship.
Keywords: entrepreneurial competencies, faculty member.
شاتوک، مایکل (1392). کارآفرینیگرایی در دانشگاهها و اقتصاد دانش. ترجمهی سید مصطفی رضوی و مصطفی علیمیری. تهران: دانشگاه تهران.
فرهنگی، علیاکبر و صفرزاده، حسین (1386). کارآفرینی: مفاهیم، نظریهها، مدلها و کاربردها. تهران: مؤسسهی کار و تأمین اجتماعی.
مارس، ماتیوام و متکالف، امیاسکات (1391). کارآفرینی در آموزشعالی. ترجمهی داود قرونه. تهران: تمدن پارس.
محمدپور، احمد (1388). تحلیل دادههای کیفی: رویهها و مدلها. انسانشناسی. دورهی دوم، سال یکم، شمارهی پیاپی دهم، بهار و تابستان 1388: 160-127.
Ahmad, N. H. (2007). A Cross Cultural Study of Entrepreneurial Competencies and Entrepreneurial Success in SMEs in Australia and Malaysia. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Adelaide, South Australia.
Baldini, N., Grimaldi, R. & Sobrero, M. (2007). To patent or not to patent? A Survey of Italian inventors on motivations, incentives and obstacles to university patenting. Scientometrics 70 (2), 333-354.
Bartlett, C. A., & Ghoshal, S. (1997). The Myth of the Generic Manager: New personal competecies for new management roles. California Management Review, 40 (1), 92–116.
Baum, J. R. (1994). The relation of traits, competencies, vision, motivation, and strategy to venture growth. University Microfilms. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland.
Baum, J. R., Locke, E. A., & Smith, K. G. (2001). A multidimensional model of venture growth. Academy of Management Journal, 44(2), 292-303.
Bird, B. (1995), “Towards a theory of entrepreneurial competency”, Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth,. 2, 51-72.
Bird, B. (2002). Learning entrepreneurship competencies: The self-directed learning approach. International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 1, 203-22.
Boyatzis, R. E. (1998), Transforming qualitative information: thematic analysis and code development, Sage.
Chou, C. M., Shen, C. H., Hsiao, H. C., & Chen, S. C. (2010). A study on constructing entrepreneurial competence indicators for business department students of vocational and technical colleges in Taiwan. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education, 8 (3), 316-320.
Clarysse, B., Tartari, V., & Salter, A. (2011). The impact of entrepreneurial capacity, experience and organizational support on academic entrepreneurship. Research Policy, 40(8), 1084-1093.
Dermol, V., & Rožman, L. (2014). Moving forward-entrepreneurship education for sustainable economy. In V: Management, Knowledge and Learning International Conference(25-27).
Deschoolmeester, D., & Izquierdo, E. (2010). What entrepreneurial competencies should be emphasized in entrepreneurship and innovation education at the undergraduate level?. In Handbook of research in entrepreneurship education: international perspectives (3, 194-208). Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
D'Este, P., Mahdi, S., Neely, A., & Rentocchini, F. (2012). Inventors and entrepreneurs in academia: What types of skills and experience matter? Technovation, 32 (5), 293-303.
Di Gregorio, D. & Shane, S. (2003). Why do some universities generate more start-ups than others? Research Policy 32 (2), 209-227.
Dixon, R., Meier, R. L., Brown, D. C., & Custer, R. L. (2005). The critical entrepreneurial competencies required by instructors from institution-based enterprises: A Jamaican study. Journal Of Industrial Teacher Education. Volume 42 Number 4:25-51.
Goethner, M., Obschonka, M., Silbereisen, R. K., & Cantner, U. (2011, April). Foundations of academic entrepreneurship: A path model for the prediction of scientists’ academic entrepreneurial intentions. In Paper presented at the DIME Final Conference (6, 8).
Göktepe-Hultén, D. (2008). A theoretical framework for understanding university inventors and patenting (No. 2008, 031). Jena economic research papers.
Göktepe-Hulten, D., & Mahagaonkar, P. (2010). Inventing and patenting activities of scientists: in the expectation of money or reputation? The Journal of Technology Transfer, 35 (4), 401-423.
Hui, W., Qiao-ping, L., & Hui-hua, Z. (2011, July). Entrepreneurial Competencies of College Students: A Qualitative Analysis. In Business Computing and Global Informatization (BCGIN), 2011 International Conference on (550-553). IEEE.
Kochadai, M. (2012). Entrepreneurial Competency “A Study with reference to socially and economically Backward Communities in Chennai City” (Doctoral dissertation, School of Management, Department of Commerce). Available at: http://dspace.pondiuni. edu.in/jspui/bitstream/1/1703/1/Thesis_Soft.pdf.
Krabel, S. & Mueller, P. (2009). What drives scientists to start their own company? An empirical investigation of Max Planck Society scientists. Research Policy, 38 (6), 947- 956.
Lam, A. (2011). What motivates academic scientists to engage in research commercialization:‘Gold’,‘ribbon’or ‘puzzle’?. Research policy, 40 (10), 1354-1368.
Landry, R., Amara, N., & Rherrad, I. (2006). Why are some university researchers more likely to create spin-offs than others? Evidence from Canadian universities. Research Policy, 35 (10), 1599-1615.
Lans, T., Hulsink, W., Baert, H., & Mulder, M. (2008). Entrepreneurship education and training in a small business context: Insights from the competence-based approach. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 16 (04), 363-383.
Lans, T., Blok, V., & Wesselink, R. (2014). Learning apart and together: towards an integrated competence framework for sustainable entrepreneurship in higher education. Journal of Cleaner Production, 62, 37-47.
Leisyte, L., Van der Steen, M., & Enders, J. (2008, September). Beyond the Isomorphistic View of the Academic Entrepreneur; An empirical exploration of norms and values of knowledge dissemination of university scientists. InPrime-Latin America Conference at Mexico City (24-26).
Lowe, R. A., & Gonzalez-Brambila, C. (2007). Faculty entrepreneurs and research productivity. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 32(3), 173-194.
Man, T. W., & Lau, T. (2005). The context of entrepreneurship in Hong Kong: An investigation through the patterns of entrepreneurial competencies in contrasting industrial environments. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 12 (4), 464-481.
Man, T.W.Y., Lau, T. & Chan, K.F. (2002), “The competitiveness of small and medium enterprises: a conceptualization with focus on entrepreneurial competencies”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 17 No. 2, pp. 123-42.
Mansfield, R.S., McClelland, D.C., Spancer, L.M., & Santiago, J. (1987). The Identification and assessment of competencies and other personal characteristic of entrepreneurs in developing countries Final Report: Project No. 936-5314, Entrepreneurship and Smell Enterprise Development, Contract No. DAN-5314-c-00-3065-00. Washington, DC: United States Agency for International Development: Boston: McBer.
Mars, M. M., & Rios-Aguilar, C. (2010). Academic entrepreneurship (re) defined: significance and implications for the scholarship of higher education. Higher Education, 59 (4), 441-460.
Marvel, M. R. (2013). Human Capital and Search‐Based Discovery: A Study of High‐Tech Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 37 (2), 403-419.
Menzies, Malcolm Bruce (2008). Recognising Scientific Entrepreneurship In New Zealand. PhD dissertation, Victoria University of Wellington.
Mitchelmore, S. & Rowley, J. (2010). Entrepreneurial competencies: a literature review and development agenda. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 16 (2), 92–111.
Morris, M. H., Webb, J. W., Fu, J., & Singhal, S. (2013). A Competency‐Based Perspective on Entrepreneurship Education: Conceptual and Empirical Insights. Journal of Small Business Management, 51 (3), 352-369.
Mosey, S., & Wright, M. (2007). From human capital to social capital: A longitudinal study of technology‐based academic entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 31 (6), 909-935.
Murray, F. (2004). The role of academic inventors in entrepreneurial firms: Sharing the Laboratory Life Research Policy 33 (4), 643-659.
Owen-Smith, J. & Powell, W. (2001). Careers and Contradictions: Faculty Responses to the Transformation of Knowledge and its Uses in the Life Sciences. Research Sociology of Work 10, 109-40.
Plumly, Jr, L. W., Marshall, L. L., Eastman, J., Iyer, R., Stanley, K. L., & Boatwright, J. (2008). Developing entrepreneurial competencies: A student business. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 11, 17.
Rezaei-zadeh, M (2014). An Analysis of Entrepreneurial Competencies, their Interdependencies and their Cultivating Approaches in Virtual Education using a Collective Intelligence Methodology. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Limerick,Ireland.
Roberts, E.B. (1991). Entrepreneurs in High Technology - Lessons From MIT and Beyond New York: Oxford University Press.
Rothaermel, F., Agung, Shanti D., & Jiang, Lin (2007). University Entrepreneurship: A Taxonomy of The Literature, Industrial and Corporate Change, 16 (4): 78- 85.
Rubino, L., Freshman, B., (2005). Developing entrepreneurial competencies in the healthcare management undergraduate classroom. The Journal of Health Administration Education 22, 399-416.
Shank, G. D. (2006). Qualitative research: A personal skills approach. Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
Slavtchev, V., & Goektepe-Hulten, D. (2009). Innovation Speed: Commercializing Scientific Knowledge Through Academic Spin-Offs. Paper to be presented at the Summer Conference 2009 on CBS - Copenhagen Business School Solbjerg Plads 3 DK2000 Frederiksberg DENMARK, June 17 - 19, 2009.
Spenser, L. M, & Spenser, S. M. (1993). Competence at work: models for superior performance. New york[etc]: john wiley.
Stuart, R., & Lindsay, P. (1997). Beyond the frame of management competenc (i) es: towards a contextually embedded framework of managerial competence in organizations. Journal of European Industrial Training, 21 (1), 26-33.